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The perception of time while perceiving dynamic emotional faces.

Li WO, Yuen KS - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: This effect can hardly be explained by induced emotion given the heterogeneous nature of emotional expressions.In addition, dynamic facial expressions exert a greater effect on perceived time drag than static expressions.The effect is most prominent when the dynamics involve an angry face or a change in valence.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Counselling and Psychology, Hong Kong Shue Yan University Braemar Hill, Hong Kong, China.

ABSTRACT
Emotion plays an essential role in the perception of time such that time is perceived to "fly" when events are enjoyable, while unenjoyable moments are perceived to "drag." Previous studies have reported a time-drag effect when participants are presented with emotional facial expressions, regardless of the emotion presented. This effect can hardly be explained by induced emotion given the heterogeneous nature of emotional expressions. We conducted two experiments (n = 44 and n = 39) to examine the cognitive mechanism underlying this effect by presenting dynamic sequences of emotional expressions to participants. Each sequence started with a particular expression, then morphed to another. The presentation of dynamic facial expressions allows a comparison between the time-drag effect of homogeneous pairs of emotional expressions sharing similar valence and arousal to heterogeneous pairs. Sequences of seven durations (400, 600, 800, 1000, 1200, 1400, 1600 ms) were presented to participants, who were asked to judge whether the sequences were closer to 400 or 1600 ms in a two-alternative forced choice task. The data were then collated according to conditions and fit into cumulative Gaussian curves to estimate the point of subjective equivalence indicating the perceived duration of 1000 ms. Consistent with previous reports, a feeling of "time dragging" is induced regardless of the sequence presented, such that 1000 ms is perceived to be longer than 1000 ms. In addition, dynamic facial expressions exert a greater effect on perceived time drag than static expressions. The effect is most prominent when the dynamics involve an angry face or a change in valence. The significance of this sensitivity is discussed in terms of emotion perception and its evolutionary significance for our attention mechanism.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Psychometric functions of Experiment 1. The left panel (A) illustrates the fit of the static facial expression, whereas the right panel (B) illustrates the fit of the morphing expression. The fit of the static neutral expression is plotted in both panels as a reference. The lower panels (C,D) plot the same data using bar graphs, with the SEM of PSE presented. **p < 0.01 in a one-sample t-test against 1000 ms.
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Figure 3: Psychometric functions of Experiment 1. The left panel (A) illustrates the fit of the static facial expression, whereas the right panel (B) illustrates the fit of the morphing expression. The fit of the static neutral expression is plotted in both panels as a reference. The lower panels (C,D) plot the same data using bar graphs, with the SEM of PSE presented. **p < 0.01 in a one-sample t-test against 1000 ms.

Mentions: Figure 3 shows the psychometric curves of the static (Figure 3A) and dynamic expressions (Figure 3B) in comparison to the neutral expression (R2 = 0.77–0.80, indicating good fit). Similarly, the 0.5 point on the y-axis illustrates the point where participants perceived the stimuli as being presented for 1000 ms. The PSE of static emotional expression mostly falls around 1000 ms. A subsequent parametric test shows that there is no significant deviation of perceived duration from the actual stimulus duration for all static emotion expressions. In contrast, the curves in Figure 3B have significantly shifted to the left, indicating an overestimation of duration; that is, a duration shorter than 1000 ms was perceived as 1000 ms, suggesting a time-drag effect. To better illustrate the results, the PSE of all seven conditions are plotted in Figures 2C,D together with their estimated standard error.


The perception of time while perceiving dynamic emotional faces.

Li WO, Yuen KS - Front Psychol (2015)

Psychometric functions of Experiment 1. The left panel (A) illustrates the fit of the static facial expression, whereas the right panel (B) illustrates the fit of the morphing expression. The fit of the static neutral expression is plotted in both panels as a reference. The lower panels (C,D) plot the same data using bar graphs, with the SEM of PSE presented. **p < 0.01 in a one-sample t-test against 1000 ms.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4543824&req=5

Figure 3: Psychometric functions of Experiment 1. The left panel (A) illustrates the fit of the static facial expression, whereas the right panel (B) illustrates the fit of the morphing expression. The fit of the static neutral expression is plotted in both panels as a reference. The lower panels (C,D) plot the same data using bar graphs, with the SEM of PSE presented. **p < 0.01 in a one-sample t-test against 1000 ms.
Mentions: Figure 3 shows the psychometric curves of the static (Figure 3A) and dynamic expressions (Figure 3B) in comparison to the neutral expression (R2 = 0.77–0.80, indicating good fit). Similarly, the 0.5 point on the y-axis illustrates the point where participants perceived the stimuli as being presented for 1000 ms. The PSE of static emotional expression mostly falls around 1000 ms. A subsequent parametric test shows that there is no significant deviation of perceived duration from the actual stimulus duration for all static emotion expressions. In contrast, the curves in Figure 3B have significantly shifted to the left, indicating an overestimation of duration; that is, a duration shorter than 1000 ms was perceived as 1000 ms, suggesting a time-drag effect. To better illustrate the results, the PSE of all seven conditions are plotted in Figures 2C,D together with their estimated standard error.

Bottom Line: This effect can hardly be explained by induced emotion given the heterogeneous nature of emotional expressions.In addition, dynamic facial expressions exert a greater effect on perceived time drag than static expressions.The effect is most prominent when the dynamics involve an angry face or a change in valence.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Counselling and Psychology, Hong Kong Shue Yan University Braemar Hill, Hong Kong, China.

ABSTRACT
Emotion plays an essential role in the perception of time such that time is perceived to "fly" when events are enjoyable, while unenjoyable moments are perceived to "drag." Previous studies have reported a time-drag effect when participants are presented with emotional facial expressions, regardless of the emotion presented. This effect can hardly be explained by induced emotion given the heterogeneous nature of emotional expressions. We conducted two experiments (n = 44 and n = 39) to examine the cognitive mechanism underlying this effect by presenting dynamic sequences of emotional expressions to participants. Each sequence started with a particular expression, then morphed to another. The presentation of dynamic facial expressions allows a comparison between the time-drag effect of homogeneous pairs of emotional expressions sharing similar valence and arousal to heterogeneous pairs. Sequences of seven durations (400, 600, 800, 1000, 1200, 1400, 1600 ms) were presented to participants, who were asked to judge whether the sequences were closer to 400 or 1600 ms in a two-alternative forced choice task. The data were then collated according to conditions and fit into cumulative Gaussian curves to estimate the point of subjective equivalence indicating the perceived duration of 1000 ms. Consistent with previous reports, a feeling of "time dragging" is induced regardless of the sequence presented, such that 1000 ms is perceived to be longer than 1000 ms. In addition, dynamic facial expressions exert a greater effect on perceived time drag than static expressions. The effect is most prominent when the dynamics involve an angry face or a change in valence. The significance of this sensitivity is discussed in terms of emotion perception and its evolutionary significance for our attention mechanism.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus