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The perception of time while perceiving dynamic emotional faces.

Li WO, Yuen KS - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: This effect can hardly be explained by induced emotion given the heterogeneous nature of emotional expressions.In addition, dynamic facial expressions exert a greater effect on perceived time drag than static expressions.The effect is most prominent when the dynamics involve an angry face or a change in valence.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Counselling and Psychology, Hong Kong Shue Yan University Braemar Hill, Hong Kong, China.

ABSTRACT
Emotion plays an essential role in the perception of time such that time is perceived to "fly" when events are enjoyable, while unenjoyable moments are perceived to "drag." Previous studies have reported a time-drag effect when participants are presented with emotional facial expressions, regardless of the emotion presented. This effect can hardly be explained by induced emotion given the heterogeneous nature of emotional expressions. We conducted two experiments (n = 44 and n = 39) to examine the cognitive mechanism underlying this effect by presenting dynamic sequences of emotional expressions to participants. Each sequence started with a particular expression, then morphed to another. The presentation of dynamic facial expressions allows a comparison between the time-drag effect of homogeneous pairs of emotional expressions sharing similar valence and arousal to heterogeneous pairs. Sequences of seven durations (400, 600, 800, 1000, 1200, 1400, 1600 ms) were presented to participants, who were asked to judge whether the sequences were closer to 400 or 1600 ms in a two-alternative forced choice task. The data were then collated according to conditions and fit into cumulative Gaussian curves to estimate the point of subjective equivalence indicating the perceived duration of 1000 ms. Consistent with previous reports, a feeling of "time dragging" is induced regardless of the sequence presented, such that 1000 ms is perceived to be longer than 1000 ms. In addition, dynamic facial expressions exert a greater effect on perceived time drag than static expressions. The effect is most prominent when the dynamics involve an angry face or a change in valence. The significance of this sensitivity is discussed in terms of emotion perception and its evolutionary significance for our attention mechanism.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The psychometric function of the static neutral expression condition in Experiment 1. Each data point is the average proportion across all participants. The dotted line indicates the estimated PSE that participants give 50% of “long” responses.
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Figure 2: The psychometric function of the static neutral expression condition in Experiment 1. Each data point is the average proportion across all participants. The dotted line indicates the estimated PSE that participants give 50% of “long” responses.

Mentions: There is no significant bias in female or male participants assigned to the two key press [χ2(1, n = 44) = 0.38, p = 0.54] and stimuli gender condition [χ2(1, n = 44) = 0.02, p = 0.89]. The potential key-press assignment and gender of the model were well-balanced, so they are collated and reported together in this section. Proportions of individuals' long-duration responses in every duration condition were computed. The data were then grouped according to emotional expression conditions. GraphPad Prism® 6 was used to analyse the data. Cumulative Gaussians were fit to the grouped proportion data using the maximum likelihood method. With this fitting of group data we estimated the Perceived Stimulus Equivalence (PSE), which indicate the stimulus durations participants were unable to identify as long or short. A graphical illustration of the PSE in the static neutral condition is shown in Figure 2. The estimated PSE (947.7 ms) is slightly shorter than 1000 ms. A PSE significantly shorter than 1000 ms implies overestimating perceived durations, equivalent to a time-drag effect. To test whether the differences are statistically significant, asymptotic standard errors and 95% confidence interval of the PSE estimates were approximated with the same statistical package. Although there is concern about the centrality of this approximation when the number of observations is small (number of intervals × trials in each < 150) (McKee et al., 1985), the sample of observations for the group fits in the present study is sufficiently large to satisfy this criterion (n = 2772). In order to further show whether PSE estimates conform to the normality assumption, we performed a Monte Carlo simulation by randomly flipping the participants' responses to create a distribution for PSE. We obtained a distribution for PSE from 10,000 permutations and the D'Agostino and Pearson omnibus normality test suggests that the distribution is normal (p = 0.79).


The perception of time while perceiving dynamic emotional faces.

Li WO, Yuen KS - Front Psychol (2015)

The psychometric function of the static neutral expression condition in Experiment 1. Each data point is the average proportion across all participants. The dotted line indicates the estimated PSE that participants give 50% of “long” responses.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4543824&req=5

Figure 2: The psychometric function of the static neutral expression condition in Experiment 1. Each data point is the average proportion across all participants. The dotted line indicates the estimated PSE that participants give 50% of “long” responses.
Mentions: There is no significant bias in female or male participants assigned to the two key press [χ2(1, n = 44) = 0.38, p = 0.54] and stimuli gender condition [χ2(1, n = 44) = 0.02, p = 0.89]. The potential key-press assignment and gender of the model were well-balanced, so they are collated and reported together in this section. Proportions of individuals' long-duration responses in every duration condition were computed. The data were then grouped according to emotional expression conditions. GraphPad Prism® 6 was used to analyse the data. Cumulative Gaussians were fit to the grouped proportion data using the maximum likelihood method. With this fitting of group data we estimated the Perceived Stimulus Equivalence (PSE), which indicate the stimulus durations participants were unable to identify as long or short. A graphical illustration of the PSE in the static neutral condition is shown in Figure 2. The estimated PSE (947.7 ms) is slightly shorter than 1000 ms. A PSE significantly shorter than 1000 ms implies overestimating perceived durations, equivalent to a time-drag effect. To test whether the differences are statistically significant, asymptotic standard errors and 95% confidence interval of the PSE estimates were approximated with the same statistical package. Although there is concern about the centrality of this approximation when the number of observations is small (number of intervals × trials in each < 150) (McKee et al., 1985), the sample of observations for the group fits in the present study is sufficiently large to satisfy this criterion (n = 2772). In order to further show whether PSE estimates conform to the normality assumption, we performed a Monte Carlo simulation by randomly flipping the participants' responses to create a distribution for PSE. We obtained a distribution for PSE from 10,000 permutations and the D'Agostino and Pearson omnibus normality test suggests that the distribution is normal (p = 0.79).

Bottom Line: This effect can hardly be explained by induced emotion given the heterogeneous nature of emotional expressions.In addition, dynamic facial expressions exert a greater effect on perceived time drag than static expressions.The effect is most prominent when the dynamics involve an angry face or a change in valence.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Counselling and Psychology, Hong Kong Shue Yan University Braemar Hill, Hong Kong, China.

ABSTRACT
Emotion plays an essential role in the perception of time such that time is perceived to "fly" when events are enjoyable, while unenjoyable moments are perceived to "drag." Previous studies have reported a time-drag effect when participants are presented with emotional facial expressions, regardless of the emotion presented. This effect can hardly be explained by induced emotion given the heterogeneous nature of emotional expressions. We conducted two experiments (n = 44 and n = 39) to examine the cognitive mechanism underlying this effect by presenting dynamic sequences of emotional expressions to participants. Each sequence started with a particular expression, then morphed to another. The presentation of dynamic facial expressions allows a comparison between the time-drag effect of homogeneous pairs of emotional expressions sharing similar valence and arousal to heterogeneous pairs. Sequences of seven durations (400, 600, 800, 1000, 1200, 1400, 1600 ms) were presented to participants, who were asked to judge whether the sequences were closer to 400 or 1600 ms in a two-alternative forced choice task. The data were then collated according to conditions and fit into cumulative Gaussian curves to estimate the point of subjective equivalence indicating the perceived duration of 1000 ms. Consistent with previous reports, a feeling of "time dragging" is induced regardless of the sequence presented, such that 1000 ms is perceived to be longer than 1000 ms. In addition, dynamic facial expressions exert a greater effect on perceived time drag than static expressions. The effect is most prominent when the dynamics involve an angry face or a change in valence. The significance of this sensitivity is discussed in terms of emotion perception and its evolutionary significance for our attention mechanism.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus