Limits...
The Number and Complexity of Pure and Recombinant HIV-1 Strains Observed within Incident Infections during the HIV and Malaria Cohort Study Conducted in Kericho, Kenya, from 2003 to 2006.

Billings E, Sanders-Buell E, Bose M, Bradfield A, Lei E, Kijak GH, Arroyo MA, Kibaya RM, Scott PT, Wasunna MK, Sawe FK, Shaffer DN, Birx DL, McCutchan FE, Michael NL, Robb ML, Kim JH, Tovanabutra S - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: This diversity and the resulting genetic distance between the observed strains will need to be addressed when vaccine immunogens are chosen.In consideration of current vaccine development efforts, the strains from these three studies were compared to five candidate vaccines (each of which are viral vectored, carrying inserts corresponding to parts of gag, pol, and envelope), which have been developed for possible use in sub-Saharan Africa.The sequence comparison between the observed strains and the candidate vaccines indicates that in the presence of diverse recombinants, a bivalent vaccine is more likely to provide T-cell epitope coverage than monovalent vaccines even when the inserts of the bivalent vaccine are not subtype-matched to the local epidemic.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: United States Military HIV Research Program/Henry M. Jackson Foundation, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Characterization of HIV-1 subtype diversity in regions where vaccine trials are conducted is critical for vaccine development and testing. This study describes the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 within a tea-plantation community cohort in Kericho, Kenya. Sixty-three incident infections were ascertained in the HIV and Malaria Cohort Study conducted in Kericho from 2003 to 2006. HIV-1 strains from 58 of those individuals were full genome characterized and compared to two previous Kenyan studies describing 41 prevalent infections from a blood bank survey (1999-2000) and 21 infections from a higher-risk cohort containing a mix of incident and prevalent infections (2006). Among the 58 strains from the community cohort, 43.1% were pure subtypes (36.2% A1, 5.2% C, and 1.7% G) and 56.9% were inter-subtype recombinants (29.3% A1D, 8.6% A1CD, 6.9% A1A2D, 5.2% A1C, 3.4% A1A2CD, and 3.4% A2D). This diversity and the resulting genetic distance between the observed strains will need to be addressed when vaccine immunogens are chosen. In consideration of current vaccine development efforts, the strains from these three studies were compared to five candidate vaccines (each of which are viral vectored, carrying inserts corresponding to parts of gag, pol, and envelope), which have been developed for possible use in sub-Saharan Africa. The sequence comparison between the observed strains and the candidate vaccines indicates that in the presence of diverse recombinants, a bivalent vaccine is more likely to provide T-cell epitope coverage than monovalent vaccines even when the inserts of the bivalent vaccine are not subtype-matched to the local epidemic.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Pure subtype and recombinant virus distribution observed during the incident infection study.The proportion of pure subtype and recombinant strains for the Kericho, Kenya Tea Plantation (community cohort) incident infection study conducted from 2003 to 2006.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4543584&req=5

pone.0135124.g001: Pure subtype and recombinant virus distribution observed during the incident infection study.The proportion of pure subtype and recombinant strains for the Kericho, Kenya Tea Plantation (community cohort) incident infection study conducted from 2003 to 2006.

Mentions: From the 63 incident infections identified during the study period, plasma from 62 individuals was available. Of those, 58 were characterized by full genome sequencing. The subtype distribution of the observed sequences is shown in Fig 1. We found that 25 (43.1%) of 58 full genome characterized samples were pure subtypes (36.2% A1, 5.2% C and 1.7% G) and 33 (56.9%) were recombinant forms. The recombinants were between parental subtypes A1, A2, C and D. There were 17 A1D (29.3%), 5 A1CD (8.6%), 4 A1A2D (6.9%), 3 A1C (5.2%), 2 A1A2CD (3.4%), and 2 A2D (3.4%) recombinants. No pure subtype D strains were found in this cohort, but over half of the observed strains (90.9% of the recombinants), contained subtype D genetic material. Likewise, 24.2% of the recombinants contained genetic contributions from the A2 subsubtype, though no pure A2 strains were found.


The Number and Complexity of Pure and Recombinant HIV-1 Strains Observed within Incident Infections during the HIV and Malaria Cohort Study Conducted in Kericho, Kenya, from 2003 to 2006.

Billings E, Sanders-Buell E, Bose M, Bradfield A, Lei E, Kijak GH, Arroyo MA, Kibaya RM, Scott PT, Wasunna MK, Sawe FK, Shaffer DN, Birx DL, McCutchan FE, Michael NL, Robb ML, Kim JH, Tovanabutra S - PLoS ONE (2015)

Pure subtype and recombinant virus distribution observed during the incident infection study.The proportion of pure subtype and recombinant strains for the Kericho, Kenya Tea Plantation (community cohort) incident infection study conducted from 2003 to 2006.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4543584&req=5

pone.0135124.g001: Pure subtype and recombinant virus distribution observed during the incident infection study.The proportion of pure subtype and recombinant strains for the Kericho, Kenya Tea Plantation (community cohort) incident infection study conducted from 2003 to 2006.
Mentions: From the 63 incident infections identified during the study period, plasma from 62 individuals was available. Of those, 58 were characterized by full genome sequencing. The subtype distribution of the observed sequences is shown in Fig 1. We found that 25 (43.1%) of 58 full genome characterized samples were pure subtypes (36.2% A1, 5.2% C and 1.7% G) and 33 (56.9%) were recombinant forms. The recombinants were between parental subtypes A1, A2, C and D. There were 17 A1D (29.3%), 5 A1CD (8.6%), 4 A1A2D (6.9%), 3 A1C (5.2%), 2 A1A2CD (3.4%), and 2 A2D (3.4%) recombinants. No pure subtype D strains were found in this cohort, but over half of the observed strains (90.9% of the recombinants), contained subtype D genetic material. Likewise, 24.2% of the recombinants contained genetic contributions from the A2 subsubtype, though no pure A2 strains were found.

Bottom Line: This diversity and the resulting genetic distance between the observed strains will need to be addressed when vaccine immunogens are chosen.In consideration of current vaccine development efforts, the strains from these three studies were compared to five candidate vaccines (each of which are viral vectored, carrying inserts corresponding to parts of gag, pol, and envelope), which have been developed for possible use in sub-Saharan Africa.The sequence comparison between the observed strains and the candidate vaccines indicates that in the presence of diverse recombinants, a bivalent vaccine is more likely to provide T-cell epitope coverage than monovalent vaccines even when the inserts of the bivalent vaccine are not subtype-matched to the local epidemic.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: United States Military HIV Research Program/Henry M. Jackson Foundation, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Characterization of HIV-1 subtype diversity in regions where vaccine trials are conducted is critical for vaccine development and testing. This study describes the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 within a tea-plantation community cohort in Kericho, Kenya. Sixty-three incident infections were ascertained in the HIV and Malaria Cohort Study conducted in Kericho from 2003 to 2006. HIV-1 strains from 58 of those individuals were full genome characterized and compared to two previous Kenyan studies describing 41 prevalent infections from a blood bank survey (1999-2000) and 21 infections from a higher-risk cohort containing a mix of incident and prevalent infections (2006). Among the 58 strains from the community cohort, 43.1% were pure subtypes (36.2% A1, 5.2% C, and 1.7% G) and 56.9% were inter-subtype recombinants (29.3% A1D, 8.6% A1CD, 6.9% A1A2D, 5.2% A1C, 3.4% A1A2CD, and 3.4% A2D). This diversity and the resulting genetic distance between the observed strains will need to be addressed when vaccine immunogens are chosen. In consideration of current vaccine development efforts, the strains from these three studies were compared to five candidate vaccines (each of which are viral vectored, carrying inserts corresponding to parts of gag, pol, and envelope), which have been developed for possible use in sub-Saharan Africa. The sequence comparison between the observed strains and the candidate vaccines indicates that in the presence of diverse recombinants, a bivalent vaccine is more likely to provide T-cell epitope coverage than monovalent vaccines even when the inserts of the bivalent vaccine are not subtype-matched to the local epidemic.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus