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Glyphosate Use Predicts ADHD Hospital Discharges in the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Net (HCUPnet): A Two-Way Fixed-Effects Analysis.

Fluegge KR, Fluegge KR - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Furthermore, total glyphosate use is strongly positively associated with total farm use of nitrogen fertilizers from 1992 to 2006 (p<.001).This effect is seen even after controlling for individual state characteristics, strong correlations over time, and other significant associations with ADHD in the literature.We draw upon the econometric results to propose unique mechanisms, borrowing principles from soil and atmospheric sciences, for how glyphosate-based herbicides may be contributing to the rise of ADHD in all populations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Health and Environmental Research (IHER), Cleveland, Ohio, 44118 United States of America; Graduate School, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 43210, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
There has been considerable international study on the etiology of rising mental disorders, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in human populations. As glyphosate is the most commonly used herbicide in the world, we sought to test the hypothesis that glyphosate use in agriculture may be a contributing environmental factor to the rise of ADHD in human populations. State estimates for glyphosate use and nitrogen fertilizer use were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). We queried the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project net (HCUPNET) for state-level hospitalization discharge data in all patients for all-listed ADHD from 2007 to 2010. We used rural-urban continuum codes from the USDA-Economic Research Service when exploring the effect of urbanization on the relationship between herbicide use and ADHD. Least squares dummy variable (LSDV) method and within method using two-way fixed effects was used to elucidate the relationship between glyphosate use and all-listed ADHD hospital discharges. We show that a one kilogram increase in glyphosate use, in particular, in one year significantly positively predicts state-level all-listed ADHD discharges, expressed as a percent of total mental disorders, the following year (coefficient = 5.54E-08, p<.01). A study on the effect of urbanization on the relationship between glyphosate and ADHD indicates that the relationship is marginally significantly positive after multiple comparison correction only in urban U.S. counties (p<.025). Furthermore, total glyphosate use is strongly positively associated with total farm use of nitrogen fertilizers from 1992 to 2006 (p<.001). We present evidence from the biomedical research literature of a plausible link among glyphosate, nitrogen dysbiosis and ADHD. Glyphosate use is a significant predictor of state hospitalizations for all-listed ADHD hospital discharges, with the effect concentrated in urban U.S. counties. This effect is seen even after controlling for individual state characteristics, strong correlations over time, and other significant associations with ADHD in the literature. We draw upon the econometric results to propose unique mechanisms, borrowing principles from soil and atmospheric sciences, for how glyphosate-based herbicides may be contributing to the rise of ADHD in all populations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) Average glyphosate use (in kilograms) in the HCUPNET states in Model 1 (Nevada and Hawaii excluded). Data are presented as average percentages with 95% confidence interval across all reporting states for each year indicated (2006–2009). (B) Average all-listed hospital discharges for ADHD, as a percent of total all-listed mental health discharges, in HCUPNET reporting states (excluding Nevada and Hawaii) for years 2007–2010 used in Model 1.Data are presented as average percentages with 95% confidence interval across all reporting states for each year indicated.
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pone.0133525.g003: (A) Average glyphosate use (in kilograms) in the HCUPNET states in Model 1 (Nevada and Hawaii excluded). Data are presented as average percentages with 95% confidence interval across all reporting states for each year indicated (2006–2009). (B) Average all-listed hospital discharges for ADHD, as a percent of total all-listed mental health discharges, in HCUPNET reporting states (excluding Nevada and Hawaii) for years 2007–2010 used in Model 1.Data are presented as average percentages with 95% confidence interval across all reporting states for each year indicated.

Mentions: Estimated national glyphosate use increased relatively 36.2%, or 26,795,398 kilograms, from 2006 to 2009, whereas use increased relatively 59.6%, or 26,668,369.50 kilograms, in all available HCUPNET states reporting data on ADHD hospital discharges for available years between 2007 and 2010. Estimated national halosulfuron use relatively decreased 0.69%, or 210.40 kilograms, from 2006 to 2009, and use relatively decreased 2.55%, or 586.20 kilograms, in all available HCUPNET states reporting data on ADHD hospital discharges for all available years between 2007 and 2010. Estimated national atrazine use relatively decreased .049%, 15,016 kilograms, from 2006 to 2009, and use relatively increased 26%, or 4,721,370.7 kilograms in HCUPNET states reporting data on ADHD hospital discharges for all available years between 2007 and 2010. This anomaly can be explained by the inclusion of the state of Illinois, which did not report hospitalization data in 2007 or 2008, but did report in 2009 and 2010. The estimated annual use of atrazine in 2009 in the state of Illinois was 4,561,841.3 kilograms, making it the state with the highest estimated atrazine usage in that year. Estimated national clethodim use increased relatively 83.9%, or 197,257 kilograms, from 2006 to 2009, and use relatively increased 70.7%, or 105,888.10 kilograms, in HCUPNET states reporting data on ADHD hospital discharges for all available years between 2007 and 2010. A state level breakdown on the percent increase in estimated glyphosate use is shown in Fig 2, and the average estimated glyphosate use over the HCUPNET reporting states is shown in Fig 3A. Some HCUPNET states did not have data for all years of interest (2007–2010): Illinois and New Mexico (2009, 2010) and New Hampshire (2007–2009).


Glyphosate Use Predicts ADHD Hospital Discharges in the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Net (HCUPnet): A Two-Way Fixed-Effects Analysis.

Fluegge KR, Fluegge KR - PLoS ONE (2015)

(A) Average glyphosate use (in kilograms) in the HCUPNET states in Model 1 (Nevada and Hawaii excluded). Data are presented as average percentages with 95% confidence interval across all reporting states for each year indicated (2006–2009). (B) Average all-listed hospital discharges for ADHD, as a percent of total all-listed mental health discharges, in HCUPNET reporting states (excluding Nevada and Hawaii) for years 2007–2010 used in Model 1.Data are presented as average percentages with 95% confidence interval across all reporting states for each year indicated.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4543553&req=5

pone.0133525.g003: (A) Average glyphosate use (in kilograms) in the HCUPNET states in Model 1 (Nevada and Hawaii excluded). Data are presented as average percentages with 95% confidence interval across all reporting states for each year indicated (2006–2009). (B) Average all-listed hospital discharges for ADHD, as a percent of total all-listed mental health discharges, in HCUPNET reporting states (excluding Nevada and Hawaii) for years 2007–2010 used in Model 1.Data are presented as average percentages with 95% confidence interval across all reporting states for each year indicated.
Mentions: Estimated national glyphosate use increased relatively 36.2%, or 26,795,398 kilograms, from 2006 to 2009, whereas use increased relatively 59.6%, or 26,668,369.50 kilograms, in all available HCUPNET states reporting data on ADHD hospital discharges for available years between 2007 and 2010. Estimated national halosulfuron use relatively decreased 0.69%, or 210.40 kilograms, from 2006 to 2009, and use relatively decreased 2.55%, or 586.20 kilograms, in all available HCUPNET states reporting data on ADHD hospital discharges for all available years between 2007 and 2010. Estimated national atrazine use relatively decreased .049%, 15,016 kilograms, from 2006 to 2009, and use relatively increased 26%, or 4,721,370.7 kilograms in HCUPNET states reporting data on ADHD hospital discharges for all available years between 2007 and 2010. This anomaly can be explained by the inclusion of the state of Illinois, which did not report hospitalization data in 2007 or 2008, but did report in 2009 and 2010. The estimated annual use of atrazine in 2009 in the state of Illinois was 4,561,841.3 kilograms, making it the state with the highest estimated atrazine usage in that year. Estimated national clethodim use increased relatively 83.9%, or 197,257 kilograms, from 2006 to 2009, and use relatively increased 70.7%, or 105,888.10 kilograms, in HCUPNET states reporting data on ADHD hospital discharges for all available years between 2007 and 2010. A state level breakdown on the percent increase in estimated glyphosate use is shown in Fig 2, and the average estimated glyphosate use over the HCUPNET reporting states is shown in Fig 3A. Some HCUPNET states did not have data for all years of interest (2007–2010): Illinois and New Mexico (2009, 2010) and New Hampshire (2007–2009).

Bottom Line: Furthermore, total glyphosate use is strongly positively associated with total farm use of nitrogen fertilizers from 1992 to 2006 (p<.001).This effect is seen even after controlling for individual state characteristics, strong correlations over time, and other significant associations with ADHD in the literature.We draw upon the econometric results to propose unique mechanisms, borrowing principles from soil and atmospheric sciences, for how glyphosate-based herbicides may be contributing to the rise of ADHD in all populations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Health and Environmental Research (IHER), Cleveland, Ohio, 44118 United States of America; Graduate School, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 43210, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
There has been considerable international study on the etiology of rising mental disorders, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in human populations. As glyphosate is the most commonly used herbicide in the world, we sought to test the hypothesis that glyphosate use in agriculture may be a contributing environmental factor to the rise of ADHD in human populations. State estimates for glyphosate use and nitrogen fertilizer use were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). We queried the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project net (HCUPNET) for state-level hospitalization discharge data in all patients for all-listed ADHD from 2007 to 2010. We used rural-urban continuum codes from the USDA-Economic Research Service when exploring the effect of urbanization on the relationship between herbicide use and ADHD. Least squares dummy variable (LSDV) method and within method using two-way fixed effects was used to elucidate the relationship between glyphosate use and all-listed ADHD hospital discharges. We show that a one kilogram increase in glyphosate use, in particular, in one year significantly positively predicts state-level all-listed ADHD discharges, expressed as a percent of total mental disorders, the following year (coefficient = 5.54E-08, p<.01). A study on the effect of urbanization on the relationship between glyphosate and ADHD indicates that the relationship is marginally significantly positive after multiple comparison correction only in urban U.S. counties (p<.025). Furthermore, total glyphosate use is strongly positively associated with total farm use of nitrogen fertilizers from 1992 to 2006 (p<.001). We present evidence from the biomedical research literature of a plausible link among glyphosate, nitrogen dysbiosis and ADHD. Glyphosate use is a significant predictor of state hospitalizations for all-listed ADHD hospital discharges, with the effect concentrated in urban U.S. counties. This effect is seen even after controlling for individual state characteristics, strong correlations over time, and other significant associations with ADHD in the literature. We draw upon the econometric results to propose unique mechanisms, borrowing principles from soil and atmospheric sciences, for how glyphosate-based herbicides may be contributing to the rise of ADHD in all populations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus