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Use of exotic plants to control Spartina alterniflora invasion and promote mangrove restoration.

Zhou T, Liu S, Feng Z, Liu G, Gan Q, Peng S - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: I: In a mangrove area invaded by S. alterniflora, exotic S. apetala and S. caseolaris grew rapidly due to their relatively fast-growing character and an allelopathic effect.III: The growth of native mangrove was promoted because exotic plant seedlings cannot regenerate in the understory shade, whereas native mesophytic mangrove plants seedlings can grow; when the area experiences extreme low temperatures in winter or at other times, S. apetala dies, and native mangrove species grow to restore the communities.This model has important implications for addressing the worldwide problems of "how to implement the ecological control of invasion using exotic species" and "how to concurrently promote native community restoration during the control of exotic invasion".

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510275.

ABSTRACT
In coastal China, the exotic invasive Spartina alterniflora is preventing the establishment of native mangroves. The use of exotic species, control of exotic plant invasion, and restoration of native plant communities are timely research issues. We used exotic Sonneratia apetala Buch.-Ham and S. caseolaris (L.) Engl. to control invasive Spartina alterniflora Loisel through replacement control for five years, which concurrently promoted the restoration of native mangroves. This process includes three stages. I: In a mangrove area invaded by S. alterniflora, exotic S. apetala and S. caseolaris grew rapidly due to their relatively fast-growing character and an allelopathic effect. II: Fast-growing S. apetala and S. caseolaris eradicate S. alterniflora through shading and allelopathy. III: The growth of native mangrove was promoted because exotic plant seedlings cannot regenerate in the understory shade, whereas native mesophytic mangrove plants seedlings can grow; when the area experiences extreme low temperatures in winter or at other times, S. apetala dies, and native mangrove species grow to restore the communities. This model has important implications for addressing the worldwide problems of "how to implement the ecological control of invasion using exotic species" and "how to concurrently promote native community restoration during the control of exotic invasion".

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic of the replacement control model for the control of invasive S. alterniflora by exotic S. apetala.At the stage of exotic species invasion, the native plant dominance gradually declines during invasive plant colonization; after the implementation of replacement control measures, i.e., in the replacement control stage, the invasive plant dominance declines after the planting of a replacement control species. After invasive plant control, the replacement control species can no longer regenerate because of its specific growth characteristics, resulting in the gradual degeneration of the replacement control species and allowing the re-establishment of native plants.
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f9: Schematic of the replacement control model for the control of invasive S. alterniflora by exotic S. apetala.At the stage of exotic species invasion, the native plant dominance gradually declines during invasive plant colonization; after the implementation of replacement control measures, i.e., in the replacement control stage, the invasive plant dominance declines after the planting of a replacement control species. After invasive plant control, the replacement control species can no longer regenerate because of its specific growth characteristics, resulting in the gradual degeneration of the replacement control species and allowing the re-establishment of native plants.

Mentions: Our study successfully used S. apetala and S. caseolaris to control S. alterniflora (Figs 2 and 3) and concurrently promote the restoration of native mangrove plants (Fig. 8). The entire replacement and restoration model is summarized in Fig. 9. Changes in the dominant species during different stages reflect the model of exotic species control and native community restoration. At the first stage (invasion process), the native plant dominance declines in parallel with exotic species invasion due to interference resulting from human activities. At the second stage (replacement control), the planted transitional exotic species grows fast and thus reduces the dominance of the exotic invasive species. At the following stage (native community restoration succession), the transitional exotic species cannot regenerate and gradually degenerates; however, the shaded habitat built by the transitional exotic species (Figs 4 and 5) provides favorable conditions for the restoration of native plants, thus improving soil properties (Fig. 7) and restoring native communities.


Use of exotic plants to control Spartina alterniflora invasion and promote mangrove restoration.

Zhou T, Liu S, Feng Z, Liu G, Gan Q, Peng S - Sci Rep (2015)

Schematic of the replacement control model for the control of invasive S. alterniflora by exotic S. apetala.At the stage of exotic species invasion, the native plant dominance gradually declines during invasive plant colonization; after the implementation of replacement control measures, i.e., in the replacement control stage, the invasive plant dominance declines after the planting of a replacement control species. After invasive plant control, the replacement control species can no longer regenerate because of its specific growth characteristics, resulting in the gradual degeneration of the replacement control species and allowing the re-establishment of native plants.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4542654&req=5

f9: Schematic of the replacement control model for the control of invasive S. alterniflora by exotic S. apetala.At the stage of exotic species invasion, the native plant dominance gradually declines during invasive plant colonization; after the implementation of replacement control measures, i.e., in the replacement control stage, the invasive plant dominance declines after the planting of a replacement control species. After invasive plant control, the replacement control species can no longer regenerate because of its specific growth characteristics, resulting in the gradual degeneration of the replacement control species and allowing the re-establishment of native plants.
Mentions: Our study successfully used S. apetala and S. caseolaris to control S. alterniflora (Figs 2 and 3) and concurrently promote the restoration of native mangrove plants (Fig. 8). The entire replacement and restoration model is summarized in Fig. 9. Changes in the dominant species during different stages reflect the model of exotic species control and native community restoration. At the first stage (invasion process), the native plant dominance declines in parallel with exotic species invasion due to interference resulting from human activities. At the second stage (replacement control), the planted transitional exotic species grows fast and thus reduces the dominance of the exotic invasive species. At the following stage (native community restoration succession), the transitional exotic species cannot regenerate and gradually degenerates; however, the shaded habitat built by the transitional exotic species (Figs 4 and 5) provides favorable conditions for the restoration of native plants, thus improving soil properties (Fig. 7) and restoring native communities.

Bottom Line: I: In a mangrove area invaded by S. alterniflora, exotic S. apetala and S. caseolaris grew rapidly due to their relatively fast-growing character and an allelopathic effect.III: The growth of native mangrove was promoted because exotic plant seedlings cannot regenerate in the understory shade, whereas native mesophytic mangrove plants seedlings can grow; when the area experiences extreme low temperatures in winter or at other times, S. apetala dies, and native mangrove species grow to restore the communities.This model has important implications for addressing the worldwide problems of "how to implement the ecological control of invasion using exotic species" and "how to concurrently promote native community restoration during the control of exotic invasion".

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510275.

ABSTRACT
In coastal China, the exotic invasive Spartina alterniflora is preventing the establishment of native mangroves. The use of exotic species, control of exotic plant invasion, and restoration of native plant communities are timely research issues. We used exotic Sonneratia apetala Buch.-Ham and S. caseolaris (L.) Engl. to control invasive Spartina alterniflora Loisel through replacement control for five years, which concurrently promoted the restoration of native mangroves. This process includes three stages. I: In a mangrove area invaded by S. alterniflora, exotic S. apetala and S. caseolaris grew rapidly due to their relatively fast-growing character and an allelopathic effect. II: Fast-growing S. apetala and S. caseolaris eradicate S. alterniflora through shading and allelopathy. III: The growth of native mangrove was promoted because exotic plant seedlings cannot regenerate in the understory shade, whereas native mesophytic mangrove plants seedlings can grow; when the area experiences extreme low temperatures in winter or at other times, S. apetala dies, and native mangrove species grow to restore the communities. This model has important implications for addressing the worldwide problems of "how to implement the ecological control of invasion using exotic species" and "how to concurrently promote native community restoration during the control of exotic invasion".

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus