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Use of exotic plants to control Spartina alterniflora invasion and promote mangrove restoration.

Zhou T, Liu S, Feng Z, Liu G, Gan Q, Peng S - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: I: In a mangrove area invaded by S. alterniflora, exotic S. apetala and S. caseolaris grew rapidly due to their relatively fast-growing character and an allelopathic effect.III: The growth of native mangrove was promoted because exotic plant seedlings cannot regenerate in the understory shade, whereas native mesophytic mangrove plants seedlings can grow; when the area experiences extreme low temperatures in winter or at other times, S. apetala dies, and native mangrove species grow to restore the communities.This model has important implications for addressing the worldwide problems of "how to implement the ecological control of invasion using exotic species" and "how to concurrently promote native community restoration during the control of exotic invasion".

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510275.

ABSTRACT
In coastal China, the exotic invasive Spartina alterniflora is preventing the establishment of native mangroves. The use of exotic species, control of exotic plant invasion, and restoration of native plant communities are timely research issues. We used exotic Sonneratia apetala Buch.-Ham and S. caseolaris (L.) Engl. to control invasive Spartina alterniflora Loisel through replacement control for five years, which concurrently promoted the restoration of native mangroves. This process includes three stages. I: In a mangrove area invaded by S. alterniflora, exotic S. apetala and S. caseolaris grew rapidly due to their relatively fast-growing character and an allelopathic effect. II: Fast-growing S. apetala and S. caseolaris eradicate S. alterniflora through shading and allelopathy. III: The growth of native mangrove was promoted because exotic plant seedlings cannot regenerate in the understory shade, whereas native mesophytic mangrove plants seedlings can grow; when the area experiences extreme low temperatures in winter or at other times, S. apetala dies, and native mangrove species grow to restore the communities. This model has important implications for addressing the worldwide problems of "how to implement the ecological control of invasion using exotic species" and "how to concurrently promote native community restoration during the control of exotic invasion".

No MeSH data available.


Relative growth rates (RGR) of Spartina alterniflora, Sonneratia apetala, and S. caseolaris in different types of plots.(a) One-way ANOVA was used to test for differences in the RGR of Spartina alterniflora among plots I, II and III; (b) One-way ANOVA was used to test for differences in the RGR between two species in plot II; (c) One-way ANOVA was used to test for differences in the RGR among three species in plot III. (mg·g−1·d−1, mean ± S.E., p < 0.05): (I) S. alterniflora; (II) S. apetala controls S. alterniflora; and (III) S. apetala + S. caseolaris control S. alterniflora.
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f4: Relative growth rates (RGR) of Spartina alterniflora, Sonneratia apetala, and S. caseolaris in different types of plots.(a) One-way ANOVA was used to test for differences in the RGR of Spartina alterniflora among plots I, II and III; (b) One-way ANOVA was used to test for differences in the RGR between two species in plot II; (c) One-way ANOVA was used to test for differences in the RGR among three species in plot III. (mg·g−1·d−1, mean ± S.E., p < 0.05): (I) S. alterniflora; (II) S. apetala controls S. alterniflora; and (III) S. apetala + S. caseolaris control S. alterniflora.

Mentions: After one, two, and five years of replacement control, S. alterniflora presented significantly lower RGR values in plots II and III than in plot I (Fig. 4a), which indicated that the growth of S. alterniflora was inhibited under the control of S. apetala and S. caseolaris. In plot II, S. apetala had a significantly higher RGR than S. alterniflora (Fig. 4b), and in plots III, both S. apetala and S. caseolaris had significantly higher RGR values than S. alterniflora (Fig. 4c). This finding showed that both S. apetala and S. caseolaris exhibit stronger competitiveness than invasive S. alterniflora under coexisting conditions.


Use of exotic plants to control Spartina alterniflora invasion and promote mangrove restoration.

Zhou T, Liu S, Feng Z, Liu G, Gan Q, Peng S - Sci Rep (2015)

Relative growth rates (RGR) of Spartina alterniflora, Sonneratia apetala, and S. caseolaris in different types of plots.(a) One-way ANOVA was used to test for differences in the RGR of Spartina alterniflora among plots I, II and III; (b) One-way ANOVA was used to test for differences in the RGR between two species in plot II; (c) One-way ANOVA was used to test for differences in the RGR among three species in plot III. (mg·g−1·d−1, mean ± S.E., p < 0.05): (I) S. alterniflora; (II) S. apetala controls S. alterniflora; and (III) S. apetala + S. caseolaris control S. alterniflora.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4542654&req=5

f4: Relative growth rates (RGR) of Spartina alterniflora, Sonneratia apetala, and S. caseolaris in different types of plots.(a) One-way ANOVA was used to test for differences in the RGR of Spartina alterniflora among plots I, II and III; (b) One-way ANOVA was used to test for differences in the RGR between two species in plot II; (c) One-way ANOVA was used to test for differences in the RGR among three species in plot III. (mg·g−1·d−1, mean ± S.E., p < 0.05): (I) S. alterniflora; (II) S. apetala controls S. alterniflora; and (III) S. apetala + S. caseolaris control S. alterniflora.
Mentions: After one, two, and five years of replacement control, S. alterniflora presented significantly lower RGR values in plots II and III than in plot I (Fig. 4a), which indicated that the growth of S. alterniflora was inhibited under the control of S. apetala and S. caseolaris. In plot II, S. apetala had a significantly higher RGR than S. alterniflora (Fig. 4b), and in plots III, both S. apetala and S. caseolaris had significantly higher RGR values than S. alterniflora (Fig. 4c). This finding showed that both S. apetala and S. caseolaris exhibit stronger competitiveness than invasive S. alterniflora under coexisting conditions.

Bottom Line: I: In a mangrove area invaded by S. alterniflora, exotic S. apetala and S. caseolaris grew rapidly due to their relatively fast-growing character and an allelopathic effect.III: The growth of native mangrove was promoted because exotic plant seedlings cannot regenerate in the understory shade, whereas native mesophytic mangrove plants seedlings can grow; when the area experiences extreme low temperatures in winter or at other times, S. apetala dies, and native mangrove species grow to restore the communities.This model has important implications for addressing the worldwide problems of "how to implement the ecological control of invasion using exotic species" and "how to concurrently promote native community restoration during the control of exotic invasion".

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510275.

ABSTRACT
In coastal China, the exotic invasive Spartina alterniflora is preventing the establishment of native mangroves. The use of exotic species, control of exotic plant invasion, and restoration of native plant communities are timely research issues. We used exotic Sonneratia apetala Buch.-Ham and S. caseolaris (L.) Engl. to control invasive Spartina alterniflora Loisel through replacement control for five years, which concurrently promoted the restoration of native mangroves. This process includes three stages. I: In a mangrove area invaded by S. alterniflora, exotic S. apetala and S. caseolaris grew rapidly due to their relatively fast-growing character and an allelopathic effect. II: Fast-growing S. apetala and S. caseolaris eradicate S. alterniflora through shading and allelopathy. III: The growth of native mangrove was promoted because exotic plant seedlings cannot regenerate in the understory shade, whereas native mesophytic mangrove plants seedlings can grow; when the area experiences extreme low temperatures in winter or at other times, S. apetala dies, and native mangrove species grow to restore the communities. This model has important implications for addressing the worldwide problems of "how to implement the ecological control of invasion using exotic species" and "how to concurrently promote native community restoration during the control of exotic invasion".

No MeSH data available.