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Use of exotic plants to control Spartina alterniflora invasion and promote mangrove restoration.

Zhou T, Liu S, Feng Z, Liu G, Gan Q, Peng S - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: I: In a mangrove area invaded by S. alterniflora, exotic S. apetala and S. caseolaris grew rapidly due to their relatively fast-growing character and an allelopathic effect.III: The growth of native mangrove was promoted because exotic plant seedlings cannot regenerate in the understory shade, whereas native mesophytic mangrove plants seedlings can grow; when the area experiences extreme low temperatures in winter or at other times, S. apetala dies, and native mangrove species grow to restore the communities.This model has important implications for addressing the worldwide problems of "how to implement the ecological control of invasion using exotic species" and "how to concurrently promote native community restoration during the control of exotic invasion".

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510275.

ABSTRACT
In coastal China, the exotic invasive Spartina alterniflora is preventing the establishment of native mangroves. The use of exotic species, control of exotic plant invasion, and restoration of native plant communities are timely research issues. We used exotic Sonneratia apetala Buch.-Ham and S. caseolaris (L.) Engl. to control invasive Spartina alterniflora Loisel through replacement control for five years, which concurrently promoted the restoration of native mangroves. This process includes three stages. I: In a mangrove area invaded by S. alterniflora, exotic S. apetala and S. caseolaris grew rapidly due to their relatively fast-growing character and an allelopathic effect. II: Fast-growing S. apetala and S. caseolaris eradicate S. alterniflora through shading and allelopathy. III: The growth of native mangrove was promoted because exotic plant seedlings cannot regenerate in the understory shade, whereas native mesophytic mangrove plants seedlings can grow; when the area experiences extreme low temperatures in winter or at other times, S. apetala dies, and native mangrove species grow to restore the communities. This model has important implications for addressing the worldwide problems of "how to implement the ecological control of invasion using exotic species" and "how to concurrently promote native community restoration during the control of exotic invasion".

No MeSH data available.


Influence of different replacement control models on Spartina alterniflora biomass (kg/m2, mean ± S.E., p < 0.05): (I) S. alterniflora; (II) Sonneratia apetala controls S. alterniflora; and (III) S. apetala + S. caseolaris control S. alterniflora.
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f3: Influence of different replacement control models on Spartina alterniflora biomass (kg/m2, mean ± S.E., p < 0.05): (I) S. alterniflora; (II) Sonneratia apetala controls S. alterniflora; and (III) S. apetala + S. caseolaris control S. alterniflora.

Mentions: After two years of replacement control, the aboveground biomass (dry matter) of S. alterniflora associated with a mixed-species planting of S. apetala + S. caseolaris was 0.11 ± 0.04 kg/m2, which is significantly less than that associated with a single-species planting of S. apetala (0.24 ± 0.07 kg/m2). The aboveground biomass of S. alterniflora in the pure plot was 1.07 ± 0.19 kg/m2. Clearly, the two treatments both resulted in significant reductions in the S. alterniflora biomass compared with the control plot. After five years of replacement control, the S. alterniflora biomass showed no significant difference between plots II and III. However, the aboveground biomass of S. alterniflora had decreased to 0.12 ± 0.01 and 0.08 ± 0.03 kg/m2 in the two treatment plots, which are significantly lower than that in the control plot of pure S. alterniflora that was not subjected to any replacement control (Fig. 3).


Use of exotic plants to control Spartina alterniflora invasion and promote mangrove restoration.

Zhou T, Liu S, Feng Z, Liu G, Gan Q, Peng S - Sci Rep (2015)

Influence of different replacement control models on Spartina alterniflora biomass (kg/m2, mean ± S.E., p < 0.05): (I) S. alterniflora; (II) Sonneratia apetala controls S. alterniflora; and (III) S. apetala + S. caseolaris control S. alterniflora.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4542654&req=5

f3: Influence of different replacement control models on Spartina alterniflora biomass (kg/m2, mean ± S.E., p < 0.05): (I) S. alterniflora; (II) Sonneratia apetala controls S. alterniflora; and (III) S. apetala + S. caseolaris control S. alterniflora.
Mentions: After two years of replacement control, the aboveground biomass (dry matter) of S. alterniflora associated with a mixed-species planting of S. apetala + S. caseolaris was 0.11 ± 0.04 kg/m2, which is significantly less than that associated with a single-species planting of S. apetala (0.24 ± 0.07 kg/m2). The aboveground biomass of S. alterniflora in the pure plot was 1.07 ± 0.19 kg/m2. Clearly, the two treatments both resulted in significant reductions in the S. alterniflora biomass compared with the control plot. After five years of replacement control, the S. alterniflora biomass showed no significant difference between plots II and III. However, the aboveground biomass of S. alterniflora had decreased to 0.12 ± 0.01 and 0.08 ± 0.03 kg/m2 in the two treatment plots, which are significantly lower than that in the control plot of pure S. alterniflora that was not subjected to any replacement control (Fig. 3).

Bottom Line: I: In a mangrove area invaded by S. alterniflora, exotic S. apetala and S. caseolaris grew rapidly due to their relatively fast-growing character and an allelopathic effect.III: The growth of native mangrove was promoted because exotic plant seedlings cannot regenerate in the understory shade, whereas native mesophytic mangrove plants seedlings can grow; when the area experiences extreme low temperatures in winter or at other times, S. apetala dies, and native mangrove species grow to restore the communities.This model has important implications for addressing the worldwide problems of "how to implement the ecological control of invasion using exotic species" and "how to concurrently promote native community restoration during the control of exotic invasion".

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510275.

ABSTRACT
In coastal China, the exotic invasive Spartina alterniflora is preventing the establishment of native mangroves. The use of exotic species, control of exotic plant invasion, and restoration of native plant communities are timely research issues. We used exotic Sonneratia apetala Buch.-Ham and S. caseolaris (L.) Engl. to control invasive Spartina alterniflora Loisel through replacement control for five years, which concurrently promoted the restoration of native mangroves. This process includes three stages. I: In a mangrove area invaded by S. alterniflora, exotic S. apetala and S. caseolaris grew rapidly due to their relatively fast-growing character and an allelopathic effect. II: Fast-growing S. apetala and S. caseolaris eradicate S. alterniflora through shading and allelopathy. III: The growth of native mangrove was promoted because exotic plant seedlings cannot regenerate in the understory shade, whereas native mesophytic mangrove plants seedlings can grow; when the area experiences extreme low temperatures in winter or at other times, S. apetala dies, and native mangrove species grow to restore the communities. This model has important implications for addressing the worldwide problems of "how to implement the ecological control of invasion using exotic species" and "how to concurrently promote native community restoration during the control of exotic invasion".

No MeSH data available.