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Use of exotic plants to control Spartina alterniflora invasion and promote mangrove restoration.

Zhou T, Liu S, Feng Z, Liu G, Gan Q, Peng S - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: I: In a mangrove area invaded by S. alterniflora, exotic S. apetala and S. caseolaris grew rapidly due to their relatively fast-growing character and an allelopathic effect.III: The growth of native mangrove was promoted because exotic plant seedlings cannot regenerate in the understory shade, whereas native mesophytic mangrove plants seedlings can grow; when the area experiences extreme low temperatures in winter or at other times, S. apetala dies, and native mangrove species grow to restore the communities.This model has important implications for addressing the worldwide problems of "how to implement the ecological control of invasion using exotic species" and "how to concurrently promote native community restoration during the control of exotic invasion".

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510275.

ABSTRACT
In coastal China, the exotic invasive Spartina alterniflora is preventing the establishment of native mangroves. The use of exotic species, control of exotic plant invasion, and restoration of native plant communities are timely research issues. We used exotic Sonneratia apetala Buch.-Ham and S. caseolaris (L.) Engl. to control invasive Spartina alterniflora Loisel through replacement control for five years, which concurrently promoted the restoration of native mangroves. This process includes three stages. I: In a mangrove area invaded by S. alterniflora, exotic S. apetala and S. caseolaris grew rapidly due to their relatively fast-growing character and an allelopathic effect. II: Fast-growing S. apetala and S. caseolaris eradicate S. alterniflora through shading and allelopathy. III: The growth of native mangrove was promoted because exotic plant seedlings cannot regenerate in the understory shade, whereas native mesophytic mangrove plants seedlings can grow; when the area experiences extreme low temperatures in winter or at other times, S. apetala dies, and native mangrove species grow to restore the communities. This model has important implications for addressing the worldwide problems of "how to implement the ecological control of invasion using exotic species" and "how to concurrently promote native community restoration during the control of exotic invasion".

No MeSH data available.


Influence of different replacement control models on Spartina alterniflora density (plants/m2, mean ± S.E., p < 0.05): *(I) S. alterniflora; (II) Sonneratia apetala controls S. alterniflora; and (III) S. apetala + S. caseolaris control S. alterniflora.
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f2: Influence of different replacement control models on Spartina alterniflora density (plants/m2, mean ± S.E., p < 0.05): *(I) S. alterniflora; (II) Sonneratia apetala controls S. alterniflora; and (III) S. apetala + S. caseolaris control S. alterniflora.

Mentions: After one year of replacement control, the S. alterniflora density was 266 plants·m−2 in pure plot I compared with 82 and 64 plants·m−2 in plots II and III, respectively. The two replacement control measures significantly reduced the density of S. alterniflora. Similarly, after two years of replacement control, both the S. apetala planting and the S. apetala + S. caseolaris mixed-species planting showed a significant controlling effect on S. alterniflora (p < 0. 05). Compared with that in plot I, the S. alterniflora density was reduced by 66.82% in plot II and by 76.36% in plot III. After five years of replacement control, the S. alterniflora density was 72 plants·m−2 in plot I compared with 27 plants·m−2 in plot II and 21 plants·m−2 in plot III. The S. alterniflora density in plot III was reduced by 70.83% compared with that in the plot that was not subjected to replacement control. After five years of control with the single species S. apetala, the S. alterniflora density decreased by 62.5%. Compared with the pure plot of S. alterniflora, plots II and III showed control differences with significant effects (p < 0.05; Fig. 2).


Use of exotic plants to control Spartina alterniflora invasion and promote mangrove restoration.

Zhou T, Liu S, Feng Z, Liu G, Gan Q, Peng S - Sci Rep (2015)

Influence of different replacement control models on Spartina alterniflora density (plants/m2, mean ± S.E., p < 0.05): *(I) S. alterniflora; (II) Sonneratia apetala controls S. alterniflora; and (III) S. apetala + S. caseolaris control S. alterniflora.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4542654&req=5

f2: Influence of different replacement control models on Spartina alterniflora density (plants/m2, mean ± S.E., p < 0.05): *(I) S. alterniflora; (II) Sonneratia apetala controls S. alterniflora; and (III) S. apetala + S. caseolaris control S. alterniflora.
Mentions: After one year of replacement control, the S. alterniflora density was 266 plants·m−2 in pure plot I compared with 82 and 64 plants·m−2 in plots II and III, respectively. The two replacement control measures significantly reduced the density of S. alterniflora. Similarly, after two years of replacement control, both the S. apetala planting and the S. apetala + S. caseolaris mixed-species planting showed a significant controlling effect on S. alterniflora (p < 0. 05). Compared with that in plot I, the S. alterniflora density was reduced by 66.82% in plot II and by 76.36% in plot III. After five years of replacement control, the S. alterniflora density was 72 plants·m−2 in plot I compared with 27 plants·m−2 in plot II and 21 plants·m−2 in plot III. The S. alterniflora density in plot III was reduced by 70.83% compared with that in the plot that was not subjected to replacement control. After five years of control with the single species S. apetala, the S. alterniflora density decreased by 62.5%. Compared with the pure plot of S. alterniflora, plots II and III showed control differences with significant effects (p < 0.05; Fig. 2).

Bottom Line: I: In a mangrove area invaded by S. alterniflora, exotic S. apetala and S. caseolaris grew rapidly due to their relatively fast-growing character and an allelopathic effect.III: The growth of native mangrove was promoted because exotic plant seedlings cannot regenerate in the understory shade, whereas native mesophytic mangrove plants seedlings can grow; when the area experiences extreme low temperatures in winter or at other times, S. apetala dies, and native mangrove species grow to restore the communities.This model has important implications for addressing the worldwide problems of "how to implement the ecological control of invasion using exotic species" and "how to concurrently promote native community restoration during the control of exotic invasion".

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510275.

ABSTRACT
In coastal China, the exotic invasive Spartina alterniflora is preventing the establishment of native mangroves. The use of exotic species, control of exotic plant invasion, and restoration of native plant communities are timely research issues. We used exotic Sonneratia apetala Buch.-Ham and S. caseolaris (L.) Engl. to control invasive Spartina alterniflora Loisel through replacement control for five years, which concurrently promoted the restoration of native mangroves. This process includes three stages. I: In a mangrove area invaded by S. alterniflora, exotic S. apetala and S. caseolaris grew rapidly due to their relatively fast-growing character and an allelopathic effect. II: Fast-growing S. apetala and S. caseolaris eradicate S. alterniflora through shading and allelopathy. III: The growth of native mangrove was promoted because exotic plant seedlings cannot regenerate in the understory shade, whereas native mesophytic mangrove plants seedlings can grow; when the area experiences extreme low temperatures in winter or at other times, S. apetala dies, and native mangrove species grow to restore the communities. This model has important implications for addressing the worldwide problems of "how to implement the ecological control of invasion using exotic species" and "how to concurrently promote native community restoration during the control of exotic invasion".

No MeSH data available.