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Use of exotic plants to control Spartina alterniflora invasion and promote mangrove restoration.

Zhou T, Liu S, Feng Z, Liu G, Gan Q, Peng S - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: I: In a mangrove area invaded by S. alterniflora, exotic S. apetala and S. caseolaris grew rapidly due to their relatively fast-growing character and an allelopathic effect.III: The growth of native mangrove was promoted because exotic plant seedlings cannot regenerate in the understory shade, whereas native mesophytic mangrove plants seedlings can grow; when the area experiences extreme low temperatures in winter or at other times, S. apetala dies, and native mangrove species grow to restore the communities.This model has important implications for addressing the worldwide problems of "how to implement the ecological control of invasion using exotic species" and "how to concurrently promote native community restoration during the control of exotic invasion".

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510275.

ABSTRACT
In coastal China, the exotic invasive Spartina alterniflora is preventing the establishment of native mangroves. The use of exotic species, control of exotic plant invasion, and restoration of native plant communities are timely research issues. We used exotic Sonneratia apetala Buch.-Ham and S. caseolaris (L.) Engl. to control invasive Spartina alterniflora Loisel through replacement control for five years, which concurrently promoted the restoration of native mangroves. This process includes three stages. I: In a mangrove area invaded by S. alterniflora, exotic S. apetala and S. caseolaris grew rapidly due to their relatively fast-growing character and an allelopathic effect. II: Fast-growing S. apetala and S. caseolaris eradicate S. alterniflora through shading and allelopathy. III: The growth of native mangrove was promoted because exotic plant seedlings cannot regenerate in the understory shade, whereas native mesophytic mangrove plants seedlings can grow; when the area experiences extreme low temperatures in winter or at other times, S. apetala dies, and native mangrove species grow to restore the communities. This model has important implications for addressing the worldwide problems of "how to implement the ecological control of invasion using exotic species" and "how to concurrently promote native community restoration during the control of exotic invasion".

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic of the replacement control mechanism.(a) The regeneration failure of native mangrove plants and (b) the rapid growth of exotic species result in invasion by exotic invasive species and the growth of exotic plants. (c) Allelopathy and (d) shading result in the replacement of exotic invasive species by exotic plants. (e) The shaded environment formed by exotic species promotes the growth of native mangrove seedlings, whereas seedlings of the exotic species are unable to regenerate because of their heliophytic nutrition. (f) Exotic species will not cause a secondary invasion due to the failure to regenerate seedlings and the death of tall trees. Figure 10 was drawn by Zhili Feng and Ting Zhou.
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f10: Schematic of the replacement control mechanism.(a) The regeneration failure of native mangrove plants and (b) the rapid growth of exotic species result in invasion by exotic invasive species and the growth of exotic plants. (c) Allelopathy and (d) shading result in the replacement of exotic invasive species by exotic plants. (e) The shaded environment formed by exotic species promotes the growth of native mangrove seedlings, whereas seedlings of the exotic species are unable to regenerate because of their heliophytic nutrition. (f) Exotic species will not cause a secondary invasion due to the failure to regenerate seedlings and the death of tall trees. Figure 10 was drawn by Zhili Feng and Ting Zhou.

Mentions: The colonization of plants occurs in multiple stages. Because various factors work in different stages, each stage should be studied32. In the model of exotic species replacement and native community restoration (Fig. 9), different mechanisms are involved in the various stages (Fig. 10).


Use of exotic plants to control Spartina alterniflora invasion and promote mangrove restoration.

Zhou T, Liu S, Feng Z, Liu G, Gan Q, Peng S - Sci Rep (2015)

Schematic of the replacement control mechanism.(a) The regeneration failure of native mangrove plants and (b) the rapid growth of exotic species result in invasion by exotic invasive species and the growth of exotic plants. (c) Allelopathy and (d) shading result in the replacement of exotic invasive species by exotic plants. (e) The shaded environment formed by exotic species promotes the growth of native mangrove seedlings, whereas seedlings of the exotic species are unable to regenerate because of their heliophytic nutrition. (f) Exotic species will not cause a secondary invasion due to the failure to regenerate seedlings and the death of tall trees. Figure 10 was drawn by Zhili Feng and Ting Zhou.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4542654&req=5

f10: Schematic of the replacement control mechanism.(a) The regeneration failure of native mangrove plants and (b) the rapid growth of exotic species result in invasion by exotic invasive species and the growth of exotic plants. (c) Allelopathy and (d) shading result in the replacement of exotic invasive species by exotic plants. (e) The shaded environment formed by exotic species promotes the growth of native mangrove seedlings, whereas seedlings of the exotic species are unable to regenerate because of their heliophytic nutrition. (f) Exotic species will not cause a secondary invasion due to the failure to regenerate seedlings and the death of tall trees. Figure 10 was drawn by Zhili Feng and Ting Zhou.
Mentions: The colonization of plants occurs in multiple stages. Because various factors work in different stages, each stage should be studied32. In the model of exotic species replacement and native community restoration (Fig. 9), different mechanisms are involved in the various stages (Fig. 10).

Bottom Line: I: In a mangrove area invaded by S. alterniflora, exotic S. apetala and S. caseolaris grew rapidly due to their relatively fast-growing character and an allelopathic effect.III: The growth of native mangrove was promoted because exotic plant seedlings cannot regenerate in the understory shade, whereas native mesophytic mangrove plants seedlings can grow; when the area experiences extreme low temperatures in winter or at other times, S. apetala dies, and native mangrove species grow to restore the communities.This model has important implications for addressing the worldwide problems of "how to implement the ecological control of invasion using exotic species" and "how to concurrently promote native community restoration during the control of exotic invasion".

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510275.

ABSTRACT
In coastal China, the exotic invasive Spartina alterniflora is preventing the establishment of native mangroves. The use of exotic species, control of exotic plant invasion, and restoration of native plant communities are timely research issues. We used exotic Sonneratia apetala Buch.-Ham and S. caseolaris (L.) Engl. to control invasive Spartina alterniflora Loisel through replacement control for five years, which concurrently promoted the restoration of native mangroves. This process includes three stages. I: In a mangrove area invaded by S. alterniflora, exotic S. apetala and S. caseolaris grew rapidly due to their relatively fast-growing character and an allelopathic effect. II: Fast-growing S. apetala and S. caseolaris eradicate S. alterniflora through shading and allelopathy. III: The growth of native mangrove was promoted because exotic plant seedlings cannot regenerate in the understory shade, whereas native mesophytic mangrove plants seedlings can grow; when the area experiences extreme low temperatures in winter or at other times, S. apetala dies, and native mangrove species grow to restore the communities. This model has important implications for addressing the worldwide problems of "how to implement the ecological control of invasion using exotic species" and "how to concurrently promote native community restoration during the control of exotic invasion".

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus