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3D visualization of movements can amplify motor cortex activation during subsequent motor imagery.

Sollfrank T, Hart D, Goodsell R, Foster J, Tan T - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: We hypothesized that a richer sensory visualization might be more effective during instrumental conditioning, resulting in a more pronounced event related desynchronization (ERD) of the upper alpha band (10-12 Hz) over the sensorimotor cortices thereby potentially improving MI based brain-computer interface (BCI) protocols for motor rehabilitation.The largest upper alpha band power decrease was obtained during MI after a 3-dimensional visualization.Realistic visual feedback, consistent with the participant's MI, might be helpful for accomplishing successful MI and the use of such feedback may assist in making BCI a more natural interface for MI based BCI rehabilitation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology I, Institute of Psychology, University of Würzburg Würzburg, Germany.

ABSTRACT
A repetitive movement practice by motor imagery (MI) can influence motor cortical excitability in the electroencephalogram (EEG). This study investigated if a realistic visualization in 3D of upper and lower limb movements can amplify motor related potentials during subsequent MI. We hypothesized that a richer sensory visualization might be more effective during instrumental conditioning, resulting in a more pronounced event related desynchronization (ERD) of the upper alpha band (10-12 Hz) over the sensorimotor cortices thereby potentially improving MI based brain-computer interface (BCI) protocols for motor rehabilitation. The results show a strong increase of the characteristic patterns of ERD of the upper alpha band components for left and right limb MI present over the sensorimotor areas in both visualization conditions. Overall, significant differences were observed as a function of visualization modality (VM; 2D vs. 3D). The largest upper alpha band power decrease was obtained during MI after a 3-dimensional visualization. In total in 12 out of 20 tasks the end-user of the 3D visualization group showed an enhanced upper alpha ERD relative to 2D VM group, with statistical significance in nine tasks.With a realistic visualization of the limb movements, we tried to increase motor cortex activation during subsequent MI. The feedback and the feedback environment should be inherently motivating and relevant for the learner and should have an appeal of novelty, real-world relevance or aesthetic value (Ryan and Deci, 2000; Merrill, 2007). Realistic visual feedback, consistent with the participant's MI, might be helpful for accomplishing successful MI and the use of such feedback may assist in making BCI a more natural interface for MI based BCI rehabilitation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

ERD/ERS patterns averaged over all end-users for the five motor imagery (MI) tasks (averaged across left and right limb movements) for 2D and 3D visualization modality (VM) in the upper alpha frequency band (10–12 Hz). Note: ERD is indicated in blue and ERS is indicated in red. The black dots represent the electrode positions (EPs).
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Figure 2: ERD/ERS patterns averaged over all end-users for the five motor imagery (MI) tasks (averaged across left and right limb movements) for 2D and 3D visualization modality (VM) in the upper alpha frequency band (10–12 Hz). Note: ERD is indicated in blue and ERS is indicated in red. The black dots represent the electrode positions (EPs).

Mentions: Figure 2 compares the topographical maps of the mean ERD values for the two VM groups, separately for the respective tasks (rotation of the wrist, elbow, knees and ankle in front and arm flexion towards the spectator) and pooled for both left and right MI in the upper alpha frequency band (10–12 Hz). In general, the results show a strong increase of the characteristic patterns of sensorimotor ERD of the upper alpha band components for left and right limb MI present over the sensorimotor areas in both visualization conditions. On basis of these findings EPs C3 and C4 were selected for further analyses, which is in accordance to other MI studies (Ron-Angevin and Díaz-Estrella, 2009; Neuper et al., 2009; Ono et al., 2013). A repeated measures ANOVA was performed on the ERD/ERS data using the VM (2 levels: 2D vs. 3D), task (5 levels: wrist movement, elbow rotation, arm flexion, knee and ankle rotation), EP (2 levels: C3 vs. C4) and task side (2 levels: left vs. right) as within-subjects variables, in order to analyze the potential influence of the VM on the ERD patterns during MI. In addition, we performed two 5 × 2 × 2 ANOVAs using the variables task, EP and task side as within-subjects variables for the two VM groups separately. Table 1 provides an overview of the significant ANOVA effects. Overall, significant differences were observed as a function of VM. This main effect is primarily due to the larger ERD during MI after 3D feedback. The significant main effect of Task indicates that ERD varied upon the different tasks. The averaged data for all upper limb (wrist rotation, elbow rotation, arm flexion) and lower limb MI tasks (knee rotation, ankle rotation) separated for the 2D and 3D condition were checked for normal distribution. Afterwards a post hoc paired sample t-test revealed significant smaller ERD values for lower limb MI tasks compared to upper limb MI tasks for the 2D (t(368) = 3.74, p = 0.041) and for the 3D (t(368) = 4.21, p = 0.0433) VM. A significant interaction between EP and task was found, which established the contralateral dominance of ERD. This analysis revealed significant interactions involving the factors VM, task, EP and task side (Table 1). Post hoc paired t-test comparison indicated that the largest upper alpha band power decrease during MI was obtained subsequent to the 3-dimensional visualization averaged or all tasks and both EPs (t(1007) = 3.126, p = 0.002).


3D visualization of movements can amplify motor cortex activation during subsequent motor imagery.

Sollfrank T, Hart D, Goodsell R, Foster J, Tan T - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

ERD/ERS patterns averaged over all end-users for the five motor imagery (MI) tasks (averaged across left and right limb movements) for 2D and 3D visualization modality (VM) in the upper alpha frequency band (10–12 Hz). Note: ERD is indicated in blue and ERS is indicated in red. The black dots represent the electrode positions (EPs).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4542583&req=5

Figure 2: ERD/ERS patterns averaged over all end-users for the five motor imagery (MI) tasks (averaged across left and right limb movements) for 2D and 3D visualization modality (VM) in the upper alpha frequency band (10–12 Hz). Note: ERD is indicated in blue and ERS is indicated in red. The black dots represent the electrode positions (EPs).
Mentions: Figure 2 compares the topographical maps of the mean ERD values for the two VM groups, separately for the respective tasks (rotation of the wrist, elbow, knees and ankle in front and arm flexion towards the spectator) and pooled for both left and right MI in the upper alpha frequency band (10–12 Hz). In general, the results show a strong increase of the characteristic patterns of sensorimotor ERD of the upper alpha band components for left and right limb MI present over the sensorimotor areas in both visualization conditions. On basis of these findings EPs C3 and C4 were selected for further analyses, which is in accordance to other MI studies (Ron-Angevin and Díaz-Estrella, 2009; Neuper et al., 2009; Ono et al., 2013). A repeated measures ANOVA was performed on the ERD/ERS data using the VM (2 levels: 2D vs. 3D), task (5 levels: wrist movement, elbow rotation, arm flexion, knee and ankle rotation), EP (2 levels: C3 vs. C4) and task side (2 levels: left vs. right) as within-subjects variables, in order to analyze the potential influence of the VM on the ERD patterns during MI. In addition, we performed two 5 × 2 × 2 ANOVAs using the variables task, EP and task side as within-subjects variables for the two VM groups separately. Table 1 provides an overview of the significant ANOVA effects. Overall, significant differences were observed as a function of VM. This main effect is primarily due to the larger ERD during MI after 3D feedback. The significant main effect of Task indicates that ERD varied upon the different tasks. The averaged data for all upper limb (wrist rotation, elbow rotation, arm flexion) and lower limb MI tasks (knee rotation, ankle rotation) separated for the 2D and 3D condition were checked for normal distribution. Afterwards a post hoc paired sample t-test revealed significant smaller ERD values for lower limb MI tasks compared to upper limb MI tasks for the 2D (t(368) = 3.74, p = 0.041) and for the 3D (t(368) = 4.21, p = 0.0433) VM. A significant interaction between EP and task was found, which established the contralateral dominance of ERD. This analysis revealed significant interactions involving the factors VM, task, EP and task side (Table 1). Post hoc paired t-test comparison indicated that the largest upper alpha band power decrease during MI was obtained subsequent to the 3-dimensional visualization averaged or all tasks and both EPs (t(1007) = 3.126, p = 0.002).

Bottom Line: We hypothesized that a richer sensory visualization might be more effective during instrumental conditioning, resulting in a more pronounced event related desynchronization (ERD) of the upper alpha band (10-12 Hz) over the sensorimotor cortices thereby potentially improving MI based brain-computer interface (BCI) protocols for motor rehabilitation.The largest upper alpha band power decrease was obtained during MI after a 3-dimensional visualization.Realistic visual feedback, consistent with the participant's MI, might be helpful for accomplishing successful MI and the use of such feedback may assist in making BCI a more natural interface for MI based BCI rehabilitation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology I, Institute of Psychology, University of Würzburg Würzburg, Germany.

ABSTRACT
A repetitive movement practice by motor imagery (MI) can influence motor cortical excitability in the electroencephalogram (EEG). This study investigated if a realistic visualization in 3D of upper and lower limb movements can amplify motor related potentials during subsequent MI. We hypothesized that a richer sensory visualization might be more effective during instrumental conditioning, resulting in a more pronounced event related desynchronization (ERD) of the upper alpha band (10-12 Hz) over the sensorimotor cortices thereby potentially improving MI based brain-computer interface (BCI) protocols for motor rehabilitation. The results show a strong increase of the characteristic patterns of ERD of the upper alpha band components for left and right limb MI present over the sensorimotor areas in both visualization conditions. Overall, significant differences were observed as a function of visualization modality (VM; 2D vs. 3D). The largest upper alpha band power decrease was obtained during MI after a 3-dimensional visualization. In total in 12 out of 20 tasks the end-user of the 3D visualization group showed an enhanced upper alpha ERD relative to 2D VM group, with statistical significance in nine tasks.With a realistic visualization of the limb movements, we tried to increase motor cortex activation during subsequent MI. The feedback and the feedback environment should be inherently motivating and relevant for the learner and should have an appeal of novelty, real-world relevance or aesthetic value (Ryan and Deci, 2000; Merrill, 2007). Realistic visual feedback, consistent with the participant's MI, might be helpful for accomplishing successful MI and the use of such feedback may assist in making BCI a more natural interface for MI based BCI rehabilitation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus