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Formation Flight of Multiple UAVs via Onboard Sensor Information Sharing.

Park C, Cho N, Lee K, Kim Y - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Although a variety of studies have focused on the algorithms for formation flight, these studies have mainly demonstrated the performance of formation flight using numerical simulations or ground robots, which do not reflect the dynamic characteristics of UAVs.Using the sensor information sharing, the formation guidance law for multiple UAVs, which includes both a circular and close formation, is designed.The hardware system, which includes avionics and an airframe, is constructed for the proposed multi-UAV platform.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Daehak-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744, Korea. bakgk@snu.ac.kr.

ABSTRACT
To monitor large areas or simultaneously measure multiple points, multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) must be flown in formation. To perform such flights, sensor information generated by each UAV should be shared via communications. Although a variety of studies have focused on the algorithms for formation flight, these studies have mainly demonstrated the performance of formation flight using numerical simulations or ground robots, which do not reflect the dynamic characteristics of UAVs. In this study, an onboard sensor information sharing system and formation flight algorithms for multiple UAVs are proposed. The communication delays of radiofrequency (RF) telemetry are analyzed to enable the implementation of the onboard sensor information sharing system. Using the sensor information sharing, the formation guidance law for multiple UAVs, which includes both a circular and close formation, is designed. The hardware system, which includes avionics and an airframe, is constructed for the proposed multi-UAV platform. A numerical simulation is performed to demonstrate the performance of the formation flight guidance and control system for multiple UAVs. Finally, a flight test is conducted to verify the proposed algorithm for the multi-UAV system.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Flight results of integrated formation flight: (a)–(b) sequential takeoff; (c) circular formation at different altitudes; (d) circular formation at same altitude; (e)–(h) separation and reconfiguration of circular formation; (i) close circular formation; (j) close triangular formation.
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sensors-15-17397-f015: Flight results of integrated formation flight: (a)–(b) sequential takeoff; (c) circular formation at different altitudes; (d) circular formation at same altitude; (e)–(h) separation and reconfiguration of circular formation; (i) close circular formation; (j) close triangular formation.

Mentions: The integrated formation flight scenario in Table 4 is conducted in sequence. The Mission and State variables are sequentially and automatically changed. The fight test is conducted in an area that measures 400 m × 400 m, and the results are shown in Figure 15. The integrated formation flight was conducted successfully. In Figure 15, solid, dotted, and dashed lines correspond to the trajectories of UAV1, UAV2, and UAV3, respectively. During the sequential takeoff stage (Figure 15a,b), the UAVs form a 120-degree circular formation at different altitudes to ensure safety (Figure 15c). Once the phase angle of the circular formation is stabilized, UAV2 and UAV3 move to the same altitude, 60 m, and execute circular formation flight (Figure 15d). After performing a circular formation flight along the circular path, UAV1 is separated from the formation and moves to the next circular path, and UAV2 and UAV3 continue the circular formation of 180° along the first circular path (Figure 15e). UAV2 moves to the second circular path and reconfigures the 180-degree circular formation with UAV1 (Figure 15f) at the second circular path. Next, UAV3 moves to the second circular path (Figure 15g), and finally, the UAVs reconfigure the circular formation of 120° (Figure 15h). The UAVs reduce the phase angles to 30° to prepare for close formation flight (Figure 15i); then, they perform the close triangular formation flight (Figure 15j).


Formation Flight of Multiple UAVs via Onboard Sensor Information Sharing.

Park C, Cho N, Lee K, Kim Y - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Flight results of integrated formation flight: (a)–(b) sequential takeoff; (c) circular formation at different altitudes; (d) circular formation at same altitude; (e)–(h) separation and reconfiguration of circular formation; (i) close circular formation; (j) close triangular formation.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4541940&req=5

sensors-15-17397-f015: Flight results of integrated formation flight: (a)–(b) sequential takeoff; (c) circular formation at different altitudes; (d) circular formation at same altitude; (e)–(h) separation and reconfiguration of circular formation; (i) close circular formation; (j) close triangular formation.
Mentions: The integrated formation flight scenario in Table 4 is conducted in sequence. The Mission and State variables are sequentially and automatically changed. The fight test is conducted in an area that measures 400 m × 400 m, and the results are shown in Figure 15. The integrated formation flight was conducted successfully. In Figure 15, solid, dotted, and dashed lines correspond to the trajectories of UAV1, UAV2, and UAV3, respectively. During the sequential takeoff stage (Figure 15a,b), the UAVs form a 120-degree circular formation at different altitudes to ensure safety (Figure 15c). Once the phase angle of the circular formation is stabilized, UAV2 and UAV3 move to the same altitude, 60 m, and execute circular formation flight (Figure 15d). After performing a circular formation flight along the circular path, UAV1 is separated from the formation and moves to the next circular path, and UAV2 and UAV3 continue the circular formation of 180° along the first circular path (Figure 15e). UAV2 moves to the second circular path and reconfigures the 180-degree circular formation with UAV1 (Figure 15f) at the second circular path. Next, UAV3 moves to the second circular path (Figure 15g), and finally, the UAVs reconfigure the circular formation of 120° (Figure 15h). The UAVs reduce the phase angles to 30° to prepare for close formation flight (Figure 15i); then, they perform the close triangular formation flight (Figure 15j).

Bottom Line: Although a variety of studies have focused on the algorithms for formation flight, these studies have mainly demonstrated the performance of formation flight using numerical simulations or ground robots, which do not reflect the dynamic characteristics of UAVs.Using the sensor information sharing, the formation guidance law for multiple UAVs, which includes both a circular and close formation, is designed.The hardware system, which includes avionics and an airframe, is constructed for the proposed multi-UAV platform.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Daehak-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744, Korea. bakgk@snu.ac.kr.

ABSTRACT
To monitor large areas or simultaneously measure multiple points, multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) must be flown in formation. To perform such flights, sensor information generated by each UAV should be shared via communications. Although a variety of studies have focused on the algorithms for formation flight, these studies have mainly demonstrated the performance of formation flight using numerical simulations or ground robots, which do not reflect the dynamic characteristics of UAVs. In this study, an onboard sensor information sharing system and formation flight algorithms for multiple UAVs are proposed. The communication delays of radiofrequency (RF) telemetry are analyzed to enable the implementation of the onboard sensor information sharing system. Using the sensor information sharing, the formation guidance law for multiple UAVs, which includes both a circular and close formation, is designed. The hardware system, which includes avionics and an airframe, is constructed for the proposed multi-UAV platform. A numerical simulation is performed to demonstrate the performance of the formation flight guidance and control system for multiple UAVs. Finally, a flight test is conducted to verify the proposed algorithm for the multi-UAV system.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus