Limits...
Stimulating the Comfort of Textile Electrodes in Wearable Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation.

Zhou H, Lu Y, Chen W, Wu Z, Zou H, Krundel L, Li G - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Textile electrodes are becoming an attractive means in the facilitation of surface electrical stimulation.The equivalent circuit models and the finite element models of different types of electrode were built based on the measured impedance data of the electrodes to reveal the possible mechanism of electrical stimulation pain.Indeed, the finite element modeling results showed that the activation function along the z direction at the depth of dermis epidermis junction of the dry textile electrode was significantly larger than that of the wet and hydrogel electrodes, thus resulting in stronger activation of pain sensing fibers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Human-Machine Intelligence-Synergy Systems of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055, China. hui.zhou@siat.ac.cn.

ABSTRACT
Textile electrodes are becoming an attractive means in the facilitation of surface electrical stimulation. However, the stimulation comfort of textile electrodes and the mechanism behind stimulation discomfort is still unknown. In this study, a textile stimulation electrode was developed using conductive fabrics and then its impedance spectroscopy, stimulation thresholds, and stimulation comfort were quantitatively assessed and compared with those of a wet textile electrode and a hydrogel electrode on healthy subjects. The equivalent circuit models and the finite element models of different types of electrode were built based on the measured impedance data of the electrodes to reveal the possible mechanism of electrical stimulation pain. Our results showed that the wet textile electrode could achieve similar stimulation performance as the hydrogel electrode in motor threshold and stimulation comfort. However, the dry textile electrode was found to have very low pain threshold and induced obvious cutaneous painful sensations during stimulation, in comparison to the wet and hydrogel electrodes. Indeed, the finite element modeling results showed that the activation function along the z direction at the depth of dermis epidermis junction of the dry textile electrode was significantly larger than that of the wet and hydrogel electrodes, thus resulting in stronger activation of pain sensing fibers. Future work will be done to make textile electrodes have similar stimulation performance and comfort as hydrogel electrodes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The sums of TESCQ scores of cutaneous, deep and general categories with the three different electrode types from all the subjects.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4541932&req=5

sensors-15-17241-f008: The sums of TESCQ scores of cutaneous, deep and general categories with the three different electrode types from all the subjects.

Mentions: Subjects were asked to rate the stimulation comfort of the different electrode types using the TESCQ questionnaire at 1хPth stimulation intensity. The sums of TESCQ scores from all the subjects are shown in Figure 8. At the 1хPth stimulation intensity, the cutaneous related stinging, hot burning, sharp, stabbing, and pricking pain sensations were distinct for different types of stimulation electrodes. With respect to the deep categorized pulling, aching, gnawing, and cramping pain, dry textile electrode only showed a score for pulling, while the wet textile electrode and hydrogel electrode showed moderate scores of pulling, gnawing and cramping. With regard to the general category, tingling and throbbing were the prominent sensations for all electrode types. The sums of scores of cutaneous, deep and general category for each electrode type from all the subjects are summarized in Table 4. While the total cutaneous score of the dry textile electrode was significantly higher than those of the hydrogel electrode and wet textile electrode, the total deep and general scores of dry textile electrode were much less than those of the other electrode types. Furthermore, the total cutaneous score of the wet textile electrode was slightly higher than that of the hydrogel electrode, but the deep and general scores of the wet textile electrode were similar to that of the hydrogel electrode.


Stimulating the Comfort of Textile Electrodes in Wearable Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation.

Zhou H, Lu Y, Chen W, Wu Z, Zou H, Krundel L, Li G - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

The sums of TESCQ scores of cutaneous, deep and general categories with the three different electrode types from all the subjects.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4541932&req=5

sensors-15-17241-f008: The sums of TESCQ scores of cutaneous, deep and general categories with the three different electrode types from all the subjects.
Mentions: Subjects were asked to rate the stimulation comfort of the different electrode types using the TESCQ questionnaire at 1хPth stimulation intensity. The sums of TESCQ scores from all the subjects are shown in Figure 8. At the 1хPth stimulation intensity, the cutaneous related stinging, hot burning, sharp, stabbing, and pricking pain sensations were distinct for different types of stimulation electrodes. With respect to the deep categorized pulling, aching, gnawing, and cramping pain, dry textile electrode only showed a score for pulling, while the wet textile electrode and hydrogel electrode showed moderate scores of pulling, gnawing and cramping. With regard to the general category, tingling and throbbing were the prominent sensations for all electrode types. The sums of scores of cutaneous, deep and general category for each electrode type from all the subjects are summarized in Table 4. While the total cutaneous score of the dry textile electrode was significantly higher than those of the hydrogel electrode and wet textile electrode, the total deep and general scores of dry textile electrode were much less than those of the other electrode types. Furthermore, the total cutaneous score of the wet textile electrode was slightly higher than that of the hydrogel electrode, but the deep and general scores of the wet textile electrode were similar to that of the hydrogel electrode.

Bottom Line: Textile electrodes are becoming an attractive means in the facilitation of surface electrical stimulation.The equivalent circuit models and the finite element models of different types of electrode were built based on the measured impedance data of the electrodes to reveal the possible mechanism of electrical stimulation pain.Indeed, the finite element modeling results showed that the activation function along the z direction at the depth of dermis epidermis junction of the dry textile electrode was significantly larger than that of the wet and hydrogel electrodes, thus resulting in stronger activation of pain sensing fibers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Human-Machine Intelligence-Synergy Systems of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055, China. hui.zhou@siat.ac.cn.

ABSTRACT
Textile electrodes are becoming an attractive means in the facilitation of surface electrical stimulation. However, the stimulation comfort of textile electrodes and the mechanism behind stimulation discomfort is still unknown. In this study, a textile stimulation electrode was developed using conductive fabrics and then its impedance spectroscopy, stimulation thresholds, and stimulation comfort were quantitatively assessed and compared with those of a wet textile electrode and a hydrogel electrode on healthy subjects. The equivalent circuit models and the finite element models of different types of electrode were built based on the measured impedance data of the electrodes to reveal the possible mechanism of electrical stimulation pain. Our results showed that the wet textile electrode could achieve similar stimulation performance as the hydrogel electrode in motor threshold and stimulation comfort. However, the dry textile electrode was found to have very low pain threshold and induced obvious cutaneous painful sensations during stimulation, in comparison to the wet and hydrogel electrodes. Indeed, the finite element modeling results showed that the activation function along the z direction at the depth of dermis epidermis junction of the dry textile electrode was significantly larger than that of the wet and hydrogel electrodes, thus resulting in stronger activation of pain sensing fibers. Future work will be done to make textile electrodes have similar stimulation performance and comfort as hydrogel electrodes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus