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Stimulating the Comfort of Textile Electrodes in Wearable Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation.

Zhou H, Lu Y, Chen W, Wu Z, Zou H, Krundel L, Li G - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Textile electrodes are becoming an attractive means in the facilitation of surface electrical stimulation.The equivalent circuit models and the finite element models of different types of electrode were built based on the measured impedance data of the electrodes to reveal the possible mechanism of electrical stimulation pain.Indeed, the finite element modeling results showed that the activation function along the z direction at the depth of dermis epidermis junction of the dry textile electrode was significantly larger than that of the wet and hydrogel electrodes, thus resulting in stronger activation of pain sensing fibers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Human-Machine Intelligence-Synergy Systems of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055, China. hui.zhou@siat.ac.cn.

ABSTRACT
Textile electrodes are becoming an attractive means in the facilitation of surface electrical stimulation. However, the stimulation comfort of textile electrodes and the mechanism behind stimulation discomfort is still unknown. In this study, a textile stimulation electrode was developed using conductive fabrics and then its impedance spectroscopy, stimulation thresholds, and stimulation comfort were quantitatively assessed and compared with those of a wet textile electrode and a hydrogel electrode on healthy subjects. The equivalent circuit models and the finite element models of different types of electrode were built based on the measured impedance data of the electrodes to reveal the possible mechanism of electrical stimulation pain. Our results showed that the wet textile electrode could achieve similar stimulation performance as the hydrogel electrode in motor threshold and stimulation comfort. However, the dry textile electrode was found to have very low pain threshold and induced obvious cutaneous painful sensations during stimulation, in comparison to the wet and hydrogel electrodes. Indeed, the finite element modeling results showed that the activation function along the z direction at the depth of dermis epidermis junction of the dry textile electrode was significantly larger than that of the wet and hydrogel electrodes, thus resulting in stronger activation of pain sensing fibers. Future work will be done to make textile electrodes have similar stimulation performance and comfort as hydrogel electrodes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Impedance of the hydrogel electrode, textile electrode, and wet textile electrode (w-textile electrode) tested on TA muscle of human legs.
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sensors-15-17241-f005: Impedance of the hydrogel electrode, textile electrode, and wet textile electrode (w-textile electrode) tested on TA muscle of human legs.

Mentions: As a steady-state technique, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is a powerful tool for the assessment of electrode interfaces. The average EIS results of the hydrogel electrode, textile electrode, and wet textile electrode (w-textile electrode) measured on the subjects are demonstrated in Figure 5 with a logarithmic plot. It can be seen from Figure 5 that the impedance of the textile electrode was higher than that of the hydrogel electrode, but after fully absorbing the water, the impedance of the wet-textile electrode decreased significantly across the whole frequency interval. The average impedance at 1 kHz reduced from 4.72 kΩ of the dry textile electrode to 0.95 kΩ of the wet textile electrode, about 40% lower than the hydrogel electrode (1.57 kΩ).


Stimulating the Comfort of Textile Electrodes in Wearable Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation.

Zhou H, Lu Y, Chen W, Wu Z, Zou H, Krundel L, Li G - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Impedance of the hydrogel electrode, textile electrode, and wet textile electrode (w-textile electrode) tested on TA muscle of human legs.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4541932&req=5

sensors-15-17241-f005: Impedance of the hydrogel electrode, textile electrode, and wet textile electrode (w-textile electrode) tested on TA muscle of human legs.
Mentions: As a steady-state technique, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is a powerful tool for the assessment of electrode interfaces. The average EIS results of the hydrogel electrode, textile electrode, and wet textile electrode (w-textile electrode) measured on the subjects are demonstrated in Figure 5 with a logarithmic plot. It can be seen from Figure 5 that the impedance of the textile electrode was higher than that of the hydrogel electrode, but after fully absorbing the water, the impedance of the wet-textile electrode decreased significantly across the whole frequency interval. The average impedance at 1 kHz reduced from 4.72 kΩ of the dry textile electrode to 0.95 kΩ of the wet textile electrode, about 40% lower than the hydrogel electrode (1.57 kΩ).

Bottom Line: Textile electrodes are becoming an attractive means in the facilitation of surface electrical stimulation.The equivalent circuit models and the finite element models of different types of electrode were built based on the measured impedance data of the electrodes to reveal the possible mechanism of electrical stimulation pain.Indeed, the finite element modeling results showed that the activation function along the z direction at the depth of dermis epidermis junction of the dry textile electrode was significantly larger than that of the wet and hydrogel electrodes, thus resulting in stronger activation of pain sensing fibers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Human-Machine Intelligence-Synergy Systems of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055, China. hui.zhou@siat.ac.cn.

ABSTRACT
Textile electrodes are becoming an attractive means in the facilitation of surface electrical stimulation. However, the stimulation comfort of textile electrodes and the mechanism behind stimulation discomfort is still unknown. In this study, a textile stimulation electrode was developed using conductive fabrics and then its impedance spectroscopy, stimulation thresholds, and stimulation comfort were quantitatively assessed and compared with those of a wet textile electrode and a hydrogel electrode on healthy subjects. The equivalent circuit models and the finite element models of different types of electrode were built based on the measured impedance data of the electrodes to reveal the possible mechanism of electrical stimulation pain. Our results showed that the wet textile electrode could achieve similar stimulation performance as the hydrogel electrode in motor threshold and stimulation comfort. However, the dry textile electrode was found to have very low pain threshold and induced obvious cutaneous painful sensations during stimulation, in comparison to the wet and hydrogel electrodes. Indeed, the finite element modeling results showed that the activation function along the z direction at the depth of dermis epidermis junction of the dry textile electrode was significantly larger than that of the wet and hydrogel electrodes, thus resulting in stronger activation of pain sensing fibers. Future work will be done to make textile electrodes have similar stimulation performance and comfort as hydrogel electrodes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus