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Stimulating the Comfort of Textile Electrodes in Wearable Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation.

Zhou H, Lu Y, Chen W, Wu Z, Zou H, Krundel L, Li G - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Textile electrodes are becoming an attractive means in the facilitation of surface electrical stimulation.The equivalent circuit models and the finite element models of different types of electrode were built based on the measured impedance data of the electrodes to reveal the possible mechanism of electrical stimulation pain.Indeed, the finite element modeling results showed that the activation function along the z direction at the depth of dermis epidermis junction of the dry textile electrode was significantly larger than that of the wet and hydrogel electrodes, thus resulting in stronger activation of pain sensing fibers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Human-Machine Intelligence-Synergy Systems of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055, China. hui.zhou@siat.ac.cn.

ABSTRACT
Textile electrodes are becoming an attractive means in the facilitation of surface electrical stimulation. However, the stimulation comfort of textile electrodes and the mechanism behind stimulation discomfort is still unknown. In this study, a textile stimulation electrode was developed using conductive fabrics and then its impedance spectroscopy, stimulation thresholds, and stimulation comfort were quantitatively assessed and compared with those of a wet textile electrode and a hydrogel electrode on healthy subjects. The equivalent circuit models and the finite element models of different types of electrode were built based on the measured impedance data of the electrodes to reveal the possible mechanism of electrical stimulation pain. Our results showed that the wet textile electrode could achieve similar stimulation performance as the hydrogel electrode in motor threshold and stimulation comfort. However, the dry textile electrode was found to have very low pain threshold and induced obvious cutaneous painful sensations during stimulation, in comparison to the wet and hydrogel electrodes. Indeed, the finite element modeling results showed that the activation function along the z direction at the depth of dermis epidermis junction of the dry textile electrode was significantly larger than that of the wet and hydrogel electrodes, thus resulting in stronger activation of pain sensing fibers. Future work will be done to make textile electrodes have similar stimulation performance and comfort as hydrogel electrodes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) A schematic view illustrating the composition of the textile electrode for surface electrical stimulation; (b) a photograph of the self-developed textile electrode (left) and a commercial hydrogel electrode (right) used in the experiment; (c) a photograph of the placement of the developed textile electrode on a subject.
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sensors-15-17241-f001: (a) A schematic view illustrating the composition of the textile electrode for surface electrical stimulation; (b) a photograph of the self-developed textile electrode (left) and a commercial hydrogel electrode (right) used in the experiment; (c) a photograph of the placement of the developed textile electrode on a subject.

Mentions: The studied textile electrode consisted of conductive fabric, textile filling, textile band, and metal snap fastener, as shown in Figure 1. The conductive fabric was made of silvered polyamide with additional Spandex. Absorbent sponge was used as textile filling, which was enwrapped with the conductive fabric. The textile band was used as a textile base. The metal snap fastener was employed for connection with stimulation devices. An elastic Velcro strap was utilized to locate the textile electrode at the proper location on the legs in the functional electrical stimulation application. The dimension of each layer of the textile electrode is about 6 cm × 4 cm, and the thicknesses of the conductive fabric and the absorbent sponge are about 0.4 mm and 5 mm, respectively.


Stimulating the Comfort of Textile Electrodes in Wearable Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation.

Zhou H, Lu Y, Chen W, Wu Z, Zou H, Krundel L, Li G - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

(a) A schematic view illustrating the composition of the textile electrode for surface electrical stimulation; (b) a photograph of the self-developed textile electrode (left) and a commercial hydrogel electrode (right) used in the experiment; (c) a photograph of the placement of the developed textile electrode on a subject.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4541932&req=5

sensors-15-17241-f001: (a) A schematic view illustrating the composition of the textile electrode for surface electrical stimulation; (b) a photograph of the self-developed textile electrode (left) and a commercial hydrogel electrode (right) used in the experiment; (c) a photograph of the placement of the developed textile electrode on a subject.
Mentions: The studied textile electrode consisted of conductive fabric, textile filling, textile band, and metal snap fastener, as shown in Figure 1. The conductive fabric was made of silvered polyamide with additional Spandex. Absorbent sponge was used as textile filling, which was enwrapped with the conductive fabric. The textile band was used as a textile base. The metal snap fastener was employed for connection with stimulation devices. An elastic Velcro strap was utilized to locate the textile electrode at the proper location on the legs in the functional electrical stimulation application. The dimension of each layer of the textile electrode is about 6 cm × 4 cm, and the thicknesses of the conductive fabric and the absorbent sponge are about 0.4 mm and 5 mm, respectively.

Bottom Line: Textile electrodes are becoming an attractive means in the facilitation of surface electrical stimulation.The equivalent circuit models and the finite element models of different types of electrode were built based on the measured impedance data of the electrodes to reveal the possible mechanism of electrical stimulation pain.Indeed, the finite element modeling results showed that the activation function along the z direction at the depth of dermis epidermis junction of the dry textile electrode was significantly larger than that of the wet and hydrogel electrodes, thus resulting in stronger activation of pain sensing fibers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Human-Machine Intelligence-Synergy Systems of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055, China. hui.zhou@siat.ac.cn.

ABSTRACT
Textile electrodes are becoming an attractive means in the facilitation of surface electrical stimulation. However, the stimulation comfort of textile electrodes and the mechanism behind stimulation discomfort is still unknown. In this study, a textile stimulation electrode was developed using conductive fabrics and then its impedance spectroscopy, stimulation thresholds, and stimulation comfort were quantitatively assessed and compared with those of a wet textile electrode and a hydrogel electrode on healthy subjects. The equivalent circuit models and the finite element models of different types of electrode were built based on the measured impedance data of the electrodes to reveal the possible mechanism of electrical stimulation pain. Our results showed that the wet textile electrode could achieve similar stimulation performance as the hydrogel electrode in motor threshold and stimulation comfort. However, the dry textile electrode was found to have very low pain threshold and induced obvious cutaneous painful sensations during stimulation, in comparison to the wet and hydrogel electrodes. Indeed, the finite element modeling results showed that the activation function along the z direction at the depth of dermis epidermis junction of the dry textile electrode was significantly larger than that of the wet and hydrogel electrodes, thus resulting in stronger activation of pain sensing fibers. Future work will be done to make textile electrodes have similar stimulation performance and comfort as hydrogel electrodes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus