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Integrating Paper Chromatography with Electrochemical Detection for the Trace Analysis of TNT in Soil.

Ryan P, Zabetakis D, Stenger DA, Trammell SA - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: The probe is a combination of graphite electrodes, filter paper, with ethylene glycol and choline chloride as the solvent/electrolyte.Square wave chromatovoltammograms show the probes have a sensitivity for TNT of 0.75 nA/ng and a limit of detection of 100 ng.In addition, by taking advantage of the inherent paper chromatography step, TNT can be separated in both time and cathodic peak potential from 4-amino-dinitrotolene co-spotted on the probe or in soil samples with the presence of methyl parathion as a possible interferent.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Science and Engineering Apprenticeship Program, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, USA. patrick_ryan_@outlook.com.

ABSTRACT
We report on the development of an electrochemical probe for the trace analysis of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in soil samples. The probe is a combination of graphite electrodes, filter paper, with ethylene glycol and choline chloride as the solvent/electrolyte. Square wave chromatovoltammograms show the probes have a sensitivity for TNT of 0.75 nA/ng and a limit of detection of 100 ng. In addition, by taking advantage of the inherent paper chromatography step, TNT can be separated in both time and cathodic peak potential from 4-amino-dinitrotolene co-spotted on the probe or in soil samples with the presence of methyl parathion as a possible interferent.

No MeSH data available.


Square wave chromato-voltammogram of 1 µg of TNT on a paper-based electrochemical probe with its edge placed in 200 µL of an ethylene glycol/choline chloride 2:1 molar mixture. Square wave parameters are amplitude = 25 mV, frequency = 60 Hz. (A) A square wave voltammogram at the peak maximum in time showing the polynomial background subtraction (dotted line); (B) Current measured at Ipcvs. scan number; (C,D) 3 dimensional representations of the same square wave chromato-voltammogram.
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sensors-15-17048-f002: Square wave chromato-voltammogram of 1 µg of TNT on a paper-based electrochemical probe with its edge placed in 200 µL of an ethylene glycol/choline chloride 2:1 molar mixture. Square wave parameters are amplitude = 25 mV, frequency = 60 Hz. (A) A square wave voltammogram at the peak maximum in time showing the polynomial background subtraction (dotted line); (B) Current measured at Ipcvs. scan number; (C,D) 3 dimensional representations of the same square wave chromato-voltammogram.

Mentions: To characterize the response of the paper probe for TNT detection, square wave chromatovoltammograms were generated by spotting 100 ng to 5000 ng of TNT on the paper, 2 cm below the working electrode and placing the edge of the paper into 200 µL of ethylene glycol/choline chloride mixture. The ethylene glycol/choline chloride mixture was transported up the paper toward the working electrode at which time the electrochemical scans were initiated. A representative data set is shown in Figure 2. To correct for the sloping background in the square wave voltammograms, a 5 factor polynomial was subtracted from each voltammogram (Figure 2A). The resulting chromatovoltammogram is shown in Figure 2B plotting the peak maximum at −0.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl vs. time. 3D plots are shown in Figure 2C,D. From the data, it is apparent that the TNT reaches the working electrode generating a signal near the solvent front. The signal then reaches maximum near 150 s and decays with a tail extending beyond 500 s.


Integrating Paper Chromatography with Electrochemical Detection for the Trace Analysis of TNT in Soil.

Ryan P, Zabetakis D, Stenger DA, Trammell SA - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Square wave chromato-voltammogram of 1 µg of TNT on a paper-based electrochemical probe with its edge placed in 200 µL of an ethylene glycol/choline chloride 2:1 molar mixture. Square wave parameters are amplitude = 25 mV, frequency = 60 Hz. (A) A square wave voltammogram at the peak maximum in time showing the polynomial background subtraction (dotted line); (B) Current measured at Ipcvs. scan number; (C,D) 3 dimensional representations of the same square wave chromato-voltammogram.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4541921&req=5

sensors-15-17048-f002: Square wave chromato-voltammogram of 1 µg of TNT on a paper-based electrochemical probe with its edge placed in 200 µL of an ethylene glycol/choline chloride 2:1 molar mixture. Square wave parameters are amplitude = 25 mV, frequency = 60 Hz. (A) A square wave voltammogram at the peak maximum in time showing the polynomial background subtraction (dotted line); (B) Current measured at Ipcvs. scan number; (C,D) 3 dimensional representations of the same square wave chromato-voltammogram.
Mentions: To characterize the response of the paper probe for TNT detection, square wave chromatovoltammograms were generated by spotting 100 ng to 5000 ng of TNT on the paper, 2 cm below the working electrode and placing the edge of the paper into 200 µL of ethylene glycol/choline chloride mixture. The ethylene glycol/choline chloride mixture was transported up the paper toward the working electrode at which time the electrochemical scans were initiated. A representative data set is shown in Figure 2. To correct for the sloping background in the square wave voltammograms, a 5 factor polynomial was subtracted from each voltammogram (Figure 2A). The resulting chromatovoltammogram is shown in Figure 2B plotting the peak maximum at −0.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl vs. time. 3D plots are shown in Figure 2C,D. From the data, it is apparent that the TNT reaches the working electrode generating a signal near the solvent front. The signal then reaches maximum near 150 s and decays with a tail extending beyond 500 s.

Bottom Line: The probe is a combination of graphite electrodes, filter paper, with ethylene glycol and choline chloride as the solvent/electrolyte.Square wave chromatovoltammograms show the probes have a sensitivity for TNT of 0.75 nA/ng and a limit of detection of 100 ng.In addition, by taking advantage of the inherent paper chromatography step, TNT can be separated in both time and cathodic peak potential from 4-amino-dinitrotolene co-spotted on the probe or in soil samples with the presence of methyl parathion as a possible interferent.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Science and Engineering Apprenticeship Program, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, USA. patrick_ryan_@outlook.com.

ABSTRACT
We report on the development of an electrochemical probe for the trace analysis of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in soil samples. The probe is a combination of graphite electrodes, filter paper, with ethylene glycol and choline chloride as the solvent/electrolyte. Square wave chromatovoltammograms show the probes have a sensitivity for TNT of 0.75 nA/ng and a limit of detection of 100 ng. In addition, by taking advantage of the inherent paper chromatography step, TNT can be separated in both time and cathodic peak potential from 4-amino-dinitrotolene co-spotted on the probe or in soil samples with the presence of methyl parathion as a possible interferent.

No MeSH data available.