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Non-Destructive Current Sensing for Energy Efficiency Monitoring in Buildings with Environmental Certification.

Mota LT, Mota Ade A, Coiado LC - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: A prototype of the proposed sensor was developed and tests were performed to validate this sensor.Based on laboratory tests, it was possible to characterize the proposed current sensor with respect to the number of turns and cross-sectional area of the primary and secondary coils.Furthermore, using the Least Squares Method, it was possible to determine the efficiency of the air core transformer current sensor (the best efficiency found, considering different test conditions, was 2%), which leads to a linear output response.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Pontifical Catholic University of Campinas, CEATEC, Campus I, Rod. Dom Pedro I, Km136, CEP 13086-900, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. lia.mota@puc-campinas.edu.br.

ABSTRACT
Nowadays, buildings environmental certifications encourage the implementation of initiatives aiming to increase energy efficiency in buildings. In these certification systems, increased energy efficiency arising from such initiatives must be demonstrated. Thus, a challenge to be faced is how to check the increase in energy efficiency related to each of the employed initiatives without a considerable building retrofit. In this context, this work presents a non-destructive method for electric current sensing to assess implemented initiatives to increase energy efficiency in buildings with environmental certification. This method proposes the use of a sensor that can be installed directly in the low voltage electrical circuit conductors that are powering the initiative under evaluation, without the need for reforms that result in significant costs, repair, and maintenance. The proposed sensor consists of three elements: an air-core transformer current sensor, an amplifying/filtering stage, and a microprocessor. A prototype of the proposed sensor was developed and tests were performed to validate this sensor. Based on laboratory tests, it was possible to characterize the proposed current sensor with respect to the number of turns and cross-sectional area of the primary and secondary coils. Furthermore, using the Least Squares Method, it was possible to determine the efficiency of the air core transformer current sensor (the best efficiency found, considering different test conditions, was 2%), which leads to a linear output response.

No MeSH data available.


Magnetic flux that is not concatenated by the transformer secondary coil.
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sensors-15-16740-f003: Magnetic flux that is not concatenated by the transformer secondary coil.

Mentions: In this work, due to the adopted air-core transformer specific geometry, the magnetic flux generated in the primary coil is not fully concatenated by the transformer secondary coil, having a significant impact in the results, as shown in Figure 3. In this figure, the circle with an inner dot represents the primary coil current “coming out” of the x-y Cartesian plane and the circle with an inside cross represents the primary coil current “entering” the x-y Cartesian plane. The crosses represent the conductors of the secondary coil. The arrows indicate the magnetic flux produced by the primary coil. It is possible to observe that a significant part of the generated magnetic flux does not trespass the secondary turns and, consequently, is not concatenated by the secondary coil.


Non-Destructive Current Sensing for Energy Efficiency Monitoring in Buildings with Environmental Certification.

Mota LT, Mota Ade A, Coiado LC - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Magnetic flux that is not concatenated by the transformer secondary coil.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4541904&req=5

sensors-15-16740-f003: Magnetic flux that is not concatenated by the transformer secondary coil.
Mentions: In this work, due to the adopted air-core transformer specific geometry, the magnetic flux generated in the primary coil is not fully concatenated by the transformer secondary coil, having a significant impact in the results, as shown in Figure 3. In this figure, the circle with an inner dot represents the primary coil current “coming out” of the x-y Cartesian plane and the circle with an inside cross represents the primary coil current “entering” the x-y Cartesian plane. The crosses represent the conductors of the secondary coil. The arrows indicate the magnetic flux produced by the primary coil. It is possible to observe that a significant part of the generated magnetic flux does not trespass the secondary turns and, consequently, is not concatenated by the secondary coil.

Bottom Line: A prototype of the proposed sensor was developed and tests were performed to validate this sensor.Based on laboratory tests, it was possible to characterize the proposed current sensor with respect to the number of turns and cross-sectional area of the primary and secondary coils.Furthermore, using the Least Squares Method, it was possible to determine the efficiency of the air core transformer current sensor (the best efficiency found, considering different test conditions, was 2%), which leads to a linear output response.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Pontifical Catholic University of Campinas, CEATEC, Campus I, Rod. Dom Pedro I, Km136, CEP 13086-900, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. lia.mota@puc-campinas.edu.br.

ABSTRACT
Nowadays, buildings environmental certifications encourage the implementation of initiatives aiming to increase energy efficiency in buildings. In these certification systems, increased energy efficiency arising from such initiatives must be demonstrated. Thus, a challenge to be faced is how to check the increase in energy efficiency related to each of the employed initiatives without a considerable building retrofit. In this context, this work presents a non-destructive method for electric current sensing to assess implemented initiatives to increase energy efficiency in buildings with environmental certification. This method proposes the use of a sensor that can be installed directly in the low voltage electrical circuit conductors that are powering the initiative under evaluation, without the need for reforms that result in significant costs, repair, and maintenance. The proposed sensor consists of three elements: an air-core transformer current sensor, an amplifying/filtering stage, and a microprocessor. A prototype of the proposed sensor was developed and tests were performed to validate this sensor. Based on laboratory tests, it was possible to characterize the proposed current sensor with respect to the number of turns and cross-sectional area of the primary and secondary coils. Furthermore, using the Least Squares Method, it was possible to determine the efficiency of the air core transformer current sensor (the best efficiency found, considering different test conditions, was 2%), which leads to a linear output response.

No MeSH data available.