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Application of 3D Printing Technology in Increasing the Diagnostic Performance of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for Infectious Diseases.

Singh H, Shimojima M, Shiratori T, An le V, Sugamata M, Yang M - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)-based diagnosis is the mainstay for measuring antibody response in infectious diseases and to support pathogen identification of potential use in infectious disease outbreaks and clinical care of individual patients.The development of laboratory diagnostics using readily available 3D printing technologies provides a timely opportunity for further expansion of this technology into immunodetection systems.Utilizing available 3D printing platforms, a '3D well' was designed and developed to have an increased surface area compared to those of 96-well plates.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Intelligent Mechanical Systems, Graduate School of System Design, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 6-6 Asahigaoka, Hino, Tokyo 191-0065, Japan. singhha3@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)-based diagnosis is the mainstay for measuring antibody response in infectious diseases and to support pathogen identification of potential use in infectious disease outbreaks and clinical care of individual patients. The development of laboratory diagnostics using readily available 3D printing technologies provides a timely opportunity for further expansion of this technology into immunodetection systems. Utilizing available 3D printing platforms, a '3D well' was designed and developed to have an increased surface area compared to those of 96-well plates. The ease and rapidity of the development of the 3D well prototype provided an opportunity for its rapid validation through the diagnostic performance of ELISA in infectious disease without modifying current laboratory practices for ELISA. The improved sensitivity of the 3D well of up to 2.25-fold higher compared to the 96-well ELISA provides a potential for the expansion of this technology towards miniaturization and Lab-On-a-Chip platforms to reduce time, volume of reagents and samples needed for such assays in the laboratory diagnosis of infectious and other diseases including applications in other disciplines.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic diagram of the 3D well (top view).
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sensors-15-16503-f001: Schematic diagram of the 3D well (top view).

Mentions: The development of the prototype design used in this study, which we named ‘3D well’, aimed at increasing the surface area available for reaction and decreasing the diffusion distance to shorten the reaction time compared to the 96-well plate used in traditional ELISAs. Additionally, the 3D well which is patent on both ends was designed to fit snuggly into the wells of the 96-well plate. The utilization of the 3D wells placed inside 96-wells was aimed at providing support/base and not to contribute to the ELISA efficiency of the 3D well. This was an important consideration to allow multiple assays to be carried out simultaneously and to maintain the standard practices of 96-well ELISA methods. Briefly, the 3D well was designed composed of two parts (A and B) of two different shapes. Part A (outer, five layers in total, symmetrically distributed 8-half oval shapes) and B (inner, four layers in total, circular in shape) piled up alternatively. This was important to enable the 3D well to be printed in one-step. The total surface area was 651 mm2 [vs. surface area of well (96-well plate): 151 mm2]. A schematic diagram showing the parameters used in the designing of the 3D well is shown in Figure 1. The 3D well was drafted using the CAD software and converted to an .STL file using the inbuilt Insight 10.2™ job processing and management software (Stratasys®, Eden Prairie, MN, USA).


Application of 3D Printing Technology in Increasing the Diagnostic Performance of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for Infectious Diseases.

Singh H, Shimojima M, Shiratori T, An le V, Sugamata M, Yang M - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Schematic diagram of the 3D well (top view).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4541890&req=5

sensors-15-16503-f001: Schematic diagram of the 3D well (top view).
Mentions: The development of the prototype design used in this study, which we named ‘3D well’, aimed at increasing the surface area available for reaction and decreasing the diffusion distance to shorten the reaction time compared to the 96-well plate used in traditional ELISAs. Additionally, the 3D well which is patent on both ends was designed to fit snuggly into the wells of the 96-well plate. The utilization of the 3D wells placed inside 96-wells was aimed at providing support/base and not to contribute to the ELISA efficiency of the 3D well. This was an important consideration to allow multiple assays to be carried out simultaneously and to maintain the standard practices of 96-well ELISA methods. Briefly, the 3D well was designed composed of two parts (A and B) of two different shapes. Part A (outer, five layers in total, symmetrically distributed 8-half oval shapes) and B (inner, four layers in total, circular in shape) piled up alternatively. This was important to enable the 3D well to be printed in one-step. The total surface area was 651 mm2 [vs. surface area of well (96-well plate): 151 mm2]. A schematic diagram showing the parameters used in the designing of the 3D well is shown in Figure 1. The 3D well was drafted using the CAD software and converted to an .STL file using the inbuilt Insight 10.2™ job processing and management software (Stratasys®, Eden Prairie, MN, USA).

Bottom Line: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)-based diagnosis is the mainstay for measuring antibody response in infectious diseases and to support pathogen identification of potential use in infectious disease outbreaks and clinical care of individual patients.The development of laboratory diagnostics using readily available 3D printing technologies provides a timely opportunity for further expansion of this technology into immunodetection systems.Utilizing available 3D printing platforms, a '3D well' was designed and developed to have an increased surface area compared to those of 96-well plates.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Intelligent Mechanical Systems, Graduate School of System Design, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 6-6 Asahigaoka, Hino, Tokyo 191-0065, Japan. singhha3@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)-based diagnosis is the mainstay for measuring antibody response in infectious diseases and to support pathogen identification of potential use in infectious disease outbreaks and clinical care of individual patients. The development of laboratory diagnostics using readily available 3D printing technologies provides a timely opportunity for further expansion of this technology into immunodetection systems. Utilizing available 3D printing platforms, a '3D well' was designed and developed to have an increased surface area compared to those of 96-well plates. The ease and rapidity of the development of the 3D well prototype provided an opportunity for its rapid validation through the diagnostic performance of ELISA in infectious disease without modifying current laboratory practices for ELISA. The improved sensitivity of the 3D well of up to 2.25-fold higher compared to the 96-well ELISA provides a potential for the expansion of this technology towards miniaturization and Lab-On-a-Chip platforms to reduce time, volume of reagents and samples needed for such assays in the laboratory diagnosis of infectious and other diseases including applications in other disciplines.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus