Limits...
HyperCube: A Small Lensless Position Sensing Device for the Tracking of Flickering Infrared LEDs.

Raharijaona T, Mignon P, Juston R, Kerhuel L, Viollet S - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Without any optics and a field-of-view of about 60°, a novel miniature visual sensor is able to locate flickering markers (LEDs) with an accuracy much greater than the one dictated by the pixel pitch.The minimalistic design in terms of small size, low mass and low power consumption of this visual sensor makes it suitable for many applications in the field of the cooperative flight of unmanned aerial vehicles and, more generally, robotic applications requiring active beacons.Experimental results show that HyperCube provides useful angular measurements that can be used to estimate the relative position between the sensor and the flickering infrared markers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Aix-Marseille Université, ISM UMR 7287, 13288, Marseille Cedex 09, France. thibaut.raharijaona@univ-amu.fr.

ABSTRACT
An innovative insect-based visual sensor is designed to perform active marker tracking. Without any optics and a field-of-view of about 60°, a novel miniature visual sensor is able to locate flickering markers (LEDs) with an accuracy much greater than the one dictated by the pixel pitch. With a size of only 1 cm3 and a mass of only 0.33 g, the lensless sensor, called HyperCube, is dedicated to 3D motion tracking and fits perfectly with the drastic constraints imposed by micro-aerial vehicles. Only three photosensors are placed on each side of the cubic configuration of the sensing device, making this sensor very inexpensive and light. HyperCube provides the azimuth and elevation of infrared LEDs flickering at a high frequency (>1 kHz) with a precision of 0.5°. The minimalistic design in terms of small size, low mass and low power consumption of this visual sensor makes it suitable for many applications in the field of the cooperative flight of unmanned aerial vehicles and, more generally, robotic applications requiring active beacons. Experimental results show that HyperCube provides useful angular measurements that can be used to estimate the relative position between the sensor and the flickering infrared markers.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) Block diagram of the IR LED position tracking system characterized by moving by hand one IR LED (flickering frequency of 1 kHz) placed 30 cm above HyperCube; (B) experimental recording of the position tracking along the X direction versus time. The DC motor dynamics in charge of moving HyperCube along the X axis was a bit too slow to follow faithfully the quick variations of the reference input signal; (C) experimental recording of the position tracking along the Y direction versus time; (D) error of the IR LED position tracking. Note that the absolute value of the position error never exceeds 10 cm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4541889&req=5

f16-sensors-15-16484: (A) Block diagram of the IR LED position tracking system characterized by moving by hand one IR LED (flickering frequency of 1 kHz) placed 30 cm above HyperCube; (B) experimental recording of the position tracking along the X direction versus time. The DC motor dynamics in charge of moving HyperCube along the X axis was a bit too slow to follow faithfully the quick variations of the reference input signal; (C) experimental recording of the position tracking along the Y direction versus time; (D) error of the IR LED position tracking. Note that the absolute value of the position error never exceeds 10 cm.

Mentions: In this section, HyperCube measurements, which consist of azimuth φ and elevation ψ, feed the controller that aims at tracking a moving IR LED in the plane. A Smith predictor with proportional and integral actions was designed and implemented to ensure the good stability of the linear displacement of HyperCube despite the time lag inherent to the visual processing algorithm. Figure 16A shows the block diagram of the closed loop system with the assessed angles φ and ψ. In Figure 16B,C, estimated positions versus time are plotted. The tracking system gives the reference trajectory.


HyperCube: A Small Lensless Position Sensing Device for the Tracking of Flickering Infrared LEDs.

Raharijaona T, Mignon P, Juston R, Kerhuel L, Viollet S - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

(A) Block diagram of the IR LED position tracking system characterized by moving by hand one IR LED (flickering frequency of 1 kHz) placed 30 cm above HyperCube; (B) experimental recording of the position tracking along the X direction versus time. The DC motor dynamics in charge of moving HyperCube along the X axis was a bit too slow to follow faithfully the quick variations of the reference input signal; (C) experimental recording of the position tracking along the Y direction versus time; (D) error of the IR LED position tracking. Note that the absolute value of the position error never exceeds 10 cm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4541889&req=5

f16-sensors-15-16484: (A) Block diagram of the IR LED position tracking system characterized by moving by hand one IR LED (flickering frequency of 1 kHz) placed 30 cm above HyperCube; (B) experimental recording of the position tracking along the X direction versus time. The DC motor dynamics in charge of moving HyperCube along the X axis was a bit too slow to follow faithfully the quick variations of the reference input signal; (C) experimental recording of the position tracking along the Y direction versus time; (D) error of the IR LED position tracking. Note that the absolute value of the position error never exceeds 10 cm.
Mentions: In this section, HyperCube measurements, which consist of azimuth φ and elevation ψ, feed the controller that aims at tracking a moving IR LED in the plane. A Smith predictor with proportional and integral actions was designed and implemented to ensure the good stability of the linear displacement of HyperCube despite the time lag inherent to the visual processing algorithm. Figure 16A shows the block diagram of the closed loop system with the assessed angles φ and ψ. In Figure 16B,C, estimated positions versus time are plotted. The tracking system gives the reference trajectory.

Bottom Line: Without any optics and a field-of-view of about 60°, a novel miniature visual sensor is able to locate flickering markers (LEDs) with an accuracy much greater than the one dictated by the pixel pitch.The minimalistic design in terms of small size, low mass and low power consumption of this visual sensor makes it suitable for many applications in the field of the cooperative flight of unmanned aerial vehicles and, more generally, robotic applications requiring active beacons.Experimental results show that HyperCube provides useful angular measurements that can be used to estimate the relative position between the sensor and the flickering infrared markers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Aix-Marseille Université, ISM UMR 7287, 13288, Marseille Cedex 09, France. thibaut.raharijaona@univ-amu.fr.

ABSTRACT
An innovative insect-based visual sensor is designed to perform active marker tracking. Without any optics and a field-of-view of about 60°, a novel miniature visual sensor is able to locate flickering markers (LEDs) with an accuracy much greater than the one dictated by the pixel pitch. With a size of only 1 cm3 and a mass of only 0.33 g, the lensless sensor, called HyperCube, is dedicated to 3D motion tracking and fits perfectly with the drastic constraints imposed by micro-aerial vehicles. Only three photosensors are placed on each side of the cubic configuration of the sensing device, making this sensor very inexpensive and light. HyperCube provides the azimuth and elevation of infrared LEDs flickering at a high frequency (>1 kHz) with a precision of 0.5°. The minimalistic design in terms of small size, low mass and low power consumption of this visual sensor makes it suitable for many applications in the field of the cooperative flight of unmanned aerial vehicles and, more generally, robotic applications requiring active beacons. Experimental results show that HyperCube provides useful angular measurements that can be used to estimate the relative position between the sensor and the flickering infrared markers.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus