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Nucleic Acid Aptamers: An Emerging Tool for Biotechnology and Biomedical Sensing.

Ku TH, Zhang T, Luo H, Yen TM, Chen PW, Han Y, Lo YH - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Detection of small molecules or proteins of living cells provides an exceptional opportunity to study genetic variations and functions, cellular behaviors, and various diseases including cancer and microbial infections.Our aim in this review is to give an overview of selected research activities related to nucleic acid-based aptamer techniques that have been reported in the past two decades.Limitations of aptamers and possible approaches to overcome these limitations are also discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0407, USA. tiku@eng.ucsd.edu.

ABSTRACT
Detection of small molecules or proteins of living cells provides an exceptional opportunity to study genetic variations and functions, cellular behaviors, and various diseases including cancer and microbial infections. Our aim in this review is to give an overview of selected research activities related to nucleic acid-based aptamer techniques that have been reported in the past two decades. Limitations of aptamers and possible approaches to overcome these limitations are also discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic representation of the design of the activatable aptamers probe (AAP) [124].
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sensors-15-16281-f005: Schematic representation of the design of the activatable aptamers probe (AAP) [124].

Mentions: The aptamers-based molecular imaging probes have been used to image disease associated biomarkers such as integrins, prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), and nucleolin [120,121,122,123]. Wang group reported an activatable aptamer probe (AAP) with conformation change due to aptamer-protein binding [124]. The researchers engineered an AAP, sg8, which binds to CCRF-CEM lymphoblastic lymphoma cells. The sg8 aptamer is composed of three components: an aptamer sequence that binds to cancer cells (A-strand), a poly-T linker (B-strand), and a short DNA sequence (C-strand) complementary to a part of the A-strand, with a fluorophore and a quencher conjugated at either 5′ or 3′ terminus. In the absence of a target, the aptamer probe is free and its hairpin structure keeps the fluorophore near the quencher, without giving any fluorescence signal. However, once the probe binds to the membrane protein of the target cancer cell, its conformation is changed, leading to an activated fluorescence signal. Figure 5 shows the design and activation of AAP probe.


Nucleic Acid Aptamers: An Emerging Tool for Biotechnology and Biomedical Sensing.

Ku TH, Zhang T, Luo H, Yen TM, Chen PW, Han Y, Lo YH - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Schematic representation of the design of the activatable aptamers probe (AAP) [124].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4541879&req=5

sensors-15-16281-f005: Schematic representation of the design of the activatable aptamers probe (AAP) [124].
Mentions: The aptamers-based molecular imaging probes have been used to image disease associated biomarkers such as integrins, prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), and nucleolin [120,121,122,123]. Wang group reported an activatable aptamer probe (AAP) with conformation change due to aptamer-protein binding [124]. The researchers engineered an AAP, sg8, which binds to CCRF-CEM lymphoblastic lymphoma cells. The sg8 aptamer is composed of three components: an aptamer sequence that binds to cancer cells (A-strand), a poly-T linker (B-strand), and a short DNA sequence (C-strand) complementary to a part of the A-strand, with a fluorophore and a quencher conjugated at either 5′ or 3′ terminus. In the absence of a target, the aptamer probe is free and its hairpin structure keeps the fluorophore near the quencher, without giving any fluorescence signal. However, once the probe binds to the membrane protein of the target cancer cell, its conformation is changed, leading to an activated fluorescence signal. Figure 5 shows the design and activation of AAP probe.

Bottom Line: Detection of small molecules or proteins of living cells provides an exceptional opportunity to study genetic variations and functions, cellular behaviors, and various diseases including cancer and microbial infections.Our aim in this review is to give an overview of selected research activities related to nucleic acid-based aptamer techniques that have been reported in the past two decades.Limitations of aptamers and possible approaches to overcome these limitations are also discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0407, USA. tiku@eng.ucsd.edu.

ABSTRACT
Detection of small molecules or proteins of living cells provides an exceptional opportunity to study genetic variations and functions, cellular behaviors, and various diseases including cancer and microbial infections. Our aim in this review is to give an overview of selected research activities related to nucleic acid-based aptamer techniques that have been reported in the past two decades. Limitations of aptamers and possible approaches to overcome these limitations are also discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus