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Nucleic Acid Aptamers: An Emerging Tool for Biotechnology and Biomedical Sensing.

Ku TH, Zhang T, Luo H, Yen TM, Chen PW, Han Y, Lo YH - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Detection of small molecules or proteins of living cells provides an exceptional opportunity to study genetic variations and functions, cellular behaviors, and various diseases including cancer and microbial infections.Our aim in this review is to give an overview of selected research activities related to nucleic acid-based aptamer techniques that have been reported in the past two decades.Limitations of aptamers and possible approaches to overcome these limitations are also discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0407, USA. tiku@eng.ucsd.edu.

ABSTRACT
Detection of small molecules or proteins of living cells provides an exceptional opportunity to study genetic variations and functions, cellular behaviors, and various diseases including cancer and microbial infections. Our aim in this review is to give an overview of selected research activities related to nucleic acid-based aptamer techniques that have been reported in the past two decades. Limitations of aptamers and possible approaches to overcome these limitations are also discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Scheme of cell-SELEX screening process.
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sensors-15-16281-f004: Scheme of cell-SELEX screening process.

Mentions: Compared to pure target molecules like small molecule organic dyes or proteins, cell membrane is a very complex target system. Cell-SELEX identifies aptamers that specifically bind to a certain cell type based on unique cell membrane extracellular characteristics. As a result, this method requires no cell surface biomarker information prior to the experiment. In 1998, Gold group [39] reported the first experiment using cell membrane as a selection target. They used red blood cell to bind aptamer library and demonstrated that SELEX method could be used not only on pure molecules, but also on complex objects such as whole cells. Recently, cell-SELEX has been further utilized for cancer research, which is particularly useful for identifying subtle cell proteomic changes between normal and cancerous cells. The positive selection on cancer cells, and negative selection on normal cells, can reveal molecular differences among the proteins. Shao group [70] has performed cell-SELEX experiment on paraffin-embedded carcinoma tissue samples. This selection process generated an aptamer, BC 15, which can specifically recognize breast cancer cells which express hnRNP A1 protein. The aptamer works for both MCF-7 cell line and clinical samples. The general aptamer screening procedure of cell-SELEX is shown in Figure 4.


Nucleic Acid Aptamers: An Emerging Tool for Biotechnology and Biomedical Sensing.

Ku TH, Zhang T, Luo H, Yen TM, Chen PW, Han Y, Lo YH - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Scheme of cell-SELEX screening process.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4541879&req=5

sensors-15-16281-f004: Scheme of cell-SELEX screening process.
Mentions: Compared to pure target molecules like small molecule organic dyes or proteins, cell membrane is a very complex target system. Cell-SELEX identifies aptamers that specifically bind to a certain cell type based on unique cell membrane extracellular characteristics. As a result, this method requires no cell surface biomarker information prior to the experiment. In 1998, Gold group [39] reported the first experiment using cell membrane as a selection target. They used red blood cell to bind aptamer library and demonstrated that SELEX method could be used not only on pure molecules, but also on complex objects such as whole cells. Recently, cell-SELEX has been further utilized for cancer research, which is particularly useful for identifying subtle cell proteomic changes between normal and cancerous cells. The positive selection on cancer cells, and negative selection on normal cells, can reveal molecular differences among the proteins. Shao group [70] has performed cell-SELEX experiment on paraffin-embedded carcinoma tissue samples. This selection process generated an aptamer, BC 15, which can specifically recognize breast cancer cells which express hnRNP A1 protein. The aptamer works for both MCF-7 cell line and clinical samples. The general aptamer screening procedure of cell-SELEX is shown in Figure 4.

Bottom Line: Detection of small molecules or proteins of living cells provides an exceptional opportunity to study genetic variations and functions, cellular behaviors, and various diseases including cancer and microbial infections.Our aim in this review is to give an overview of selected research activities related to nucleic acid-based aptamer techniques that have been reported in the past two decades.Limitations of aptamers and possible approaches to overcome these limitations are also discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0407, USA. tiku@eng.ucsd.edu.

ABSTRACT
Detection of small molecules or proteins of living cells provides an exceptional opportunity to study genetic variations and functions, cellular behaviors, and various diseases including cancer and microbial infections. Our aim in this review is to give an overview of selected research activities related to nucleic acid-based aptamer techniques that have been reported in the past two decades. Limitations of aptamers and possible approaches to overcome these limitations are also discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus