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Nucleic Acid Aptamers: An Emerging Tool for Biotechnology and Biomedical Sensing.

Ku TH, Zhang T, Luo H, Yen TM, Chen PW, Han Y, Lo YH - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Detection of small molecules or proteins of living cells provides an exceptional opportunity to study genetic variations and functions, cellular behaviors, and various diseases including cancer and microbial infections.Our aim in this review is to give an overview of selected research activities related to nucleic acid-based aptamer techniques that have been reported in the past two decades.Limitations of aptamers and possible approaches to overcome these limitations are also discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0407, USA. tiku@eng.ucsd.edu.

ABSTRACT
Detection of small molecules or proteins of living cells provides an exceptional opportunity to study genetic variations and functions, cellular behaviors, and various diseases including cancer and microbial infections. Our aim in this review is to give an overview of selected research activities related to nucleic acid-based aptamer techniques that have been reported in the past two decades. Limitations of aptamers and possible approaches to overcome these limitations are also discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

In vitro selection of target specific aptamer through SELEX screening process.
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sensors-15-16281-f003: In vitro selection of target specific aptamer through SELEX screening process.

Mentions: Through SELEX process, aptamers have been explored extensively as specific and high affinity probes to a variety of targets, ranging from small organic molecules dyes to large biomolecules such as proteins, cells and even entire tumor tissue [8,9,37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48,49,50,51,52,53,54]. The whole process starts from generating a randomized nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) sequence library, which is normally composed of ~1015 different aptamers sequences that theoretically can recognize any target molecules [1,2]. Because the efficiency of phosphoramidite chemistry for A, T, G, and C coupling reaction is very similar, the randomized ssDNA library can be generated through a regular DNA synthesizer by using a mixture of phosphoramidites in a ratio of 1.5:1.25:1.15:1.0 (A:C:G:T) [55]. The diversity of the library is determined by the length of random sequence regions at the center flanked by designed primer binding sites at the 5′ and 3′ ends. Even though one can generate 4n different sequences from n nucleotides in principle, about ~1015 aptamer combinations can be produced in the library, in practice, corresponding to a random region length of about 25 nucleotides. Figure 3 depicts a typical SELEX process flow, including repetition selection cycle and amplification.


Nucleic Acid Aptamers: An Emerging Tool for Biotechnology and Biomedical Sensing.

Ku TH, Zhang T, Luo H, Yen TM, Chen PW, Han Y, Lo YH - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

In vitro selection of target specific aptamer through SELEX screening process.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4541879&req=5

sensors-15-16281-f003: In vitro selection of target specific aptamer through SELEX screening process.
Mentions: Through SELEX process, aptamers have been explored extensively as specific and high affinity probes to a variety of targets, ranging from small organic molecules dyes to large biomolecules such as proteins, cells and even entire tumor tissue [8,9,37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48,49,50,51,52,53,54]. The whole process starts from generating a randomized nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) sequence library, which is normally composed of ~1015 different aptamers sequences that theoretically can recognize any target molecules [1,2]. Because the efficiency of phosphoramidite chemistry for A, T, G, and C coupling reaction is very similar, the randomized ssDNA library can be generated through a regular DNA synthesizer by using a mixture of phosphoramidites in a ratio of 1.5:1.25:1.15:1.0 (A:C:G:T) [55]. The diversity of the library is determined by the length of random sequence regions at the center flanked by designed primer binding sites at the 5′ and 3′ ends. Even though one can generate 4n different sequences from n nucleotides in principle, about ~1015 aptamer combinations can be produced in the library, in practice, corresponding to a random region length of about 25 nucleotides. Figure 3 depicts a typical SELEX process flow, including repetition selection cycle and amplification.

Bottom Line: Detection of small molecules or proteins of living cells provides an exceptional opportunity to study genetic variations and functions, cellular behaviors, and various diseases including cancer and microbial infections.Our aim in this review is to give an overview of selected research activities related to nucleic acid-based aptamer techniques that have been reported in the past two decades.Limitations of aptamers and possible approaches to overcome these limitations are also discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0407, USA. tiku@eng.ucsd.edu.

ABSTRACT
Detection of small molecules or proteins of living cells provides an exceptional opportunity to study genetic variations and functions, cellular behaviors, and various diseases including cancer and microbial infections. Our aim in this review is to give an overview of selected research activities related to nucleic acid-based aptamer techniques that have been reported in the past two decades. Limitations of aptamers and possible approaches to overcome these limitations are also discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus