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Providing IoT Services in Smart Cities through Dynamic Augmented Reality Markers.

Chaves-Diéguez D, Pellitero-Rivero A, García-Coego D, González-Castaño FJ, Rodríguez-Hernández PS, Piñeiro-Gómez Ó, Gil-Castiñeira F, Costa-Montenegro E - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: These IDs allow information about the objects to be retrieved from a remote server.In this work, we present a novel solution that replaces static AR markers with dynamic markers based on LED communication, which can be decoded through cameras embedded in smartphones.These dynamic markers can directly deliver sensor information to the rendering device, on top of the object ID, without further network interaction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: AtlantTIC, Universidade de Vigo, Rúa Maxwell S/N, 36310 Vigo, Spain. dchaves@gradiant.org.

ABSTRACT
Smart cities are expected to improve the quality of life of citizens by relying on new paradigms, such as the Internet of Things (IoT) and its capacity to manage and interconnect thousands of sensors and actuators scattered across the city. At the same time, mobile devices widely assist professional and personal everyday activities. A very good example of the potential of these devices for smart cities is their powerful support for intuitive service interfaces (such as those based on augmented reality (AR)) for non-expert users. In our work, we consider a scenario that combines IoT and AR within a smart city maintenance service to improve the accessibility of sensor and actuator devices in the field, where responsiveness is crucial. In it, depending on the location and needs of each service, data and commands will be transported by an urban communications network or consulted on the spot. Direct AR interaction with urban objects has already been described; it usually relies on 2D visual codes to deliver object identifiers (IDs) to the rendering device to identify object resources. These IDs allow information about the objects to be retrieved from a remote server. In this work, we present a novel solution that replaces static AR markers with dynamic markers based on LED communication, which can be decoded through cameras embedded in smartphones. These dynamic markers can directly deliver sensor information to the rendering device, on top of the object ID, without further network interaction.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Intense light reflections may cause false positives (Left). False positives are reduced by applying simple image processing techniques (Right).
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f3-sensors-15-16083: Intense light reflections may cause false positives (Left). False positives are reduced by applying simple image processing techniques (Right).

Mentions: To enable detection of the emitted LED pattern, we implemented a simple image processing routine using OpenCV libraries [28]. First, the RGB image taken from the smartphone camera is converted to grayscale. The FindContours [29] function then locates the frame contours and stores each one as a vector of points. Once the contours of each LED have been identified, the Moments [30] function is used to return the area described by each of the stored contours. Next, the center of these areas is calculated so that each LED is referenced by a pair of x and y coordinates. However, even though LEDs are correctly located with the described method, problems may arise in highly illuminated environments. For example, light reflections or direct sunlight may give rise to false positives. To solve this problem, the detection system was improved by eliminating higher and lower contrast regions within a fixed range. Open contours were eliminated, yielding a procedure that is more robust in high luminosity conditions (Figure 3). Finally, once the LEDs have been detected and positioned, the message is decoded. The following restrictions were imposed to improve decoding reliability:


Providing IoT Services in Smart Cities through Dynamic Augmented Reality Markers.

Chaves-Diéguez D, Pellitero-Rivero A, García-Coego D, González-Castaño FJ, Rodríguez-Hernández PS, Piñeiro-Gómez Ó, Gil-Castiñeira F, Costa-Montenegro E - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Intense light reflections may cause false positives (Left). False positives are reduced by applying simple image processing techniques (Right).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4541869&req=5

f3-sensors-15-16083: Intense light reflections may cause false positives (Left). False positives are reduced by applying simple image processing techniques (Right).
Mentions: To enable detection of the emitted LED pattern, we implemented a simple image processing routine using OpenCV libraries [28]. First, the RGB image taken from the smartphone camera is converted to grayscale. The FindContours [29] function then locates the frame contours and stores each one as a vector of points. Once the contours of each LED have been identified, the Moments [30] function is used to return the area described by each of the stored contours. Next, the center of these areas is calculated so that each LED is referenced by a pair of x and y coordinates. However, even though LEDs are correctly located with the described method, problems may arise in highly illuminated environments. For example, light reflections or direct sunlight may give rise to false positives. To solve this problem, the detection system was improved by eliminating higher and lower contrast regions within a fixed range. Open contours were eliminated, yielding a procedure that is more robust in high luminosity conditions (Figure 3). Finally, once the LEDs have been detected and positioned, the message is decoded. The following restrictions were imposed to improve decoding reliability:

Bottom Line: These IDs allow information about the objects to be retrieved from a remote server.In this work, we present a novel solution that replaces static AR markers with dynamic markers based on LED communication, which can be decoded through cameras embedded in smartphones.These dynamic markers can directly deliver sensor information to the rendering device, on top of the object ID, without further network interaction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: AtlantTIC, Universidade de Vigo, Rúa Maxwell S/N, 36310 Vigo, Spain. dchaves@gradiant.org.

ABSTRACT
Smart cities are expected to improve the quality of life of citizens by relying on new paradigms, such as the Internet of Things (IoT) and its capacity to manage and interconnect thousands of sensors and actuators scattered across the city. At the same time, mobile devices widely assist professional and personal everyday activities. A very good example of the potential of these devices for smart cities is their powerful support for intuitive service interfaces (such as those based on augmented reality (AR)) for non-expert users. In our work, we consider a scenario that combines IoT and AR within a smart city maintenance service to improve the accessibility of sensor and actuator devices in the field, where responsiveness is crucial. In it, depending on the location and needs of each service, data and commands will be transported by an urban communications network or consulted on the spot. Direct AR interaction with urban objects has already been described; it usually relies on 2D visual codes to deliver object identifiers (IDs) to the rendering device to identify object resources. These IDs allow information about the objects to be retrieved from a remote server. In this work, we present a novel solution that replaces static AR markers with dynamic markers based on LED communication, which can be decoded through cameras embedded in smartphones. These dynamic markers can directly deliver sensor information to the rendering device, on top of the object ID, without further network interaction.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus