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Providing IoT Services in Smart Cities through Dynamic Augmented Reality Markers.

Chaves-Diéguez D, Pellitero-Rivero A, García-Coego D, González-Castaño FJ, Rodríguez-Hernández PS, Piñeiro-Gómez Ó, Gil-Castiñeira F, Costa-Montenegro E - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: These IDs allow information about the objects to be retrieved from a remote server.In this work, we present a novel solution that replaces static AR markers with dynamic markers based on LED communication, which can be decoded through cameras embedded in smartphones.These dynamic markers can directly deliver sensor information to the rendering device, on top of the object ID, without further network interaction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: AtlantTIC, Universidade de Vigo, Rúa Maxwell S/N, 36310 Vigo, Spain. dchaves@gradiant.org.

ABSTRACT
Smart cities are expected to improve the quality of life of citizens by relying on new paradigms, such as the Internet of Things (IoT) and its capacity to manage and interconnect thousands of sensors and actuators scattered across the city. At the same time, mobile devices widely assist professional and personal everyday activities. A very good example of the potential of these devices for smart cities is their powerful support for intuitive service interfaces (such as those based on augmented reality (AR)) for non-expert users. In our work, we consider a scenario that combines IoT and AR within a smart city maintenance service to improve the accessibility of sensor and actuator devices in the field, where responsiveness is crucial. In it, depending on the location and needs of each service, data and commands will be transported by an urban communications network or consulted on the spot. Direct AR interaction with urban objects has already been described; it usually relies on 2D visual codes to deliver object identifiers (IDs) to the rendering device to identify object resources. These IDs allow information about the objects to be retrieved from a remote server. In this work, we present a novel solution that replaces static AR markers with dynamic markers based on LED communication, which can be decoded through cameras embedded in smartphones. These dynamic markers can directly deliver sensor information to the rendering device, on top of the object ID, without further network interaction.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effects of various sampling rates while sampling a signal [27].
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f2-sensors-15-16083: Effects of various sampling rates while sampling a signal [27].

Mentions: According to this symbol coding scheme, the information transmission data rate for a given frequency F1 is F1/2 bytes per second (half a byte every 1/F1 seconds). Since most modern smartphones and video conferencing cameras are capable of shooting video at 30 frames per second [26] (i.e., the sampling frequency is Fs = 30Hz) and taking into account the sampling theorem, the maximum LED blinking frequency that can be correctly detected is Fb = Fs/2 = 15Hz. As shown in Figure 2, at least two samples (images) must be captured each blinking period in order to correctly detect the LED frequency of reference.


Providing IoT Services in Smart Cities through Dynamic Augmented Reality Markers.

Chaves-Diéguez D, Pellitero-Rivero A, García-Coego D, González-Castaño FJ, Rodríguez-Hernández PS, Piñeiro-Gómez Ó, Gil-Castiñeira F, Costa-Montenegro E - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Effects of various sampling rates while sampling a signal [27].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4541869&req=5

f2-sensors-15-16083: Effects of various sampling rates while sampling a signal [27].
Mentions: According to this symbol coding scheme, the information transmission data rate for a given frequency F1 is F1/2 bytes per second (half a byte every 1/F1 seconds). Since most modern smartphones and video conferencing cameras are capable of shooting video at 30 frames per second [26] (i.e., the sampling frequency is Fs = 30Hz) and taking into account the sampling theorem, the maximum LED blinking frequency that can be correctly detected is Fb = Fs/2 = 15Hz. As shown in Figure 2, at least two samples (images) must be captured each blinking period in order to correctly detect the LED frequency of reference.

Bottom Line: These IDs allow information about the objects to be retrieved from a remote server.In this work, we present a novel solution that replaces static AR markers with dynamic markers based on LED communication, which can be decoded through cameras embedded in smartphones.These dynamic markers can directly deliver sensor information to the rendering device, on top of the object ID, without further network interaction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: AtlantTIC, Universidade de Vigo, Rúa Maxwell S/N, 36310 Vigo, Spain. dchaves@gradiant.org.

ABSTRACT
Smart cities are expected to improve the quality of life of citizens by relying on new paradigms, such as the Internet of Things (IoT) and its capacity to manage and interconnect thousands of sensors and actuators scattered across the city. At the same time, mobile devices widely assist professional and personal everyday activities. A very good example of the potential of these devices for smart cities is their powerful support for intuitive service interfaces (such as those based on augmented reality (AR)) for non-expert users. In our work, we consider a scenario that combines IoT and AR within a smart city maintenance service to improve the accessibility of sensor and actuator devices in the field, where responsiveness is crucial. In it, depending on the location and needs of each service, data and commands will be transported by an urban communications network or consulted on the spot. Direct AR interaction with urban objects has already been described; it usually relies on 2D visual codes to deliver object identifiers (IDs) to the rendering device to identify object resources. These IDs allow information about the objects to be retrieved from a remote server. In this work, we present a novel solution that replaces static AR markers with dynamic markers based on LED communication, which can be decoded through cameras embedded in smartphones. These dynamic markers can directly deliver sensor information to the rendering device, on top of the object ID, without further network interaction.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus