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Providing IoT Services in Smart Cities through Dynamic Augmented Reality Markers.

Chaves-Diéguez D, Pellitero-Rivero A, García-Coego D, González-Castaño FJ, Rodríguez-Hernández PS, Piñeiro-Gómez Ó, Gil-Castiñeira F, Costa-Montenegro E - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: These IDs allow information about the objects to be retrieved from a remote server.In this work, we present a novel solution that replaces static AR markers with dynamic markers based on LED communication, which can be decoded through cameras embedded in smartphones.These dynamic markers can directly deliver sensor information to the rendering device, on top of the object ID, without further network interaction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: AtlantTIC, Universidade de Vigo, Rúa Maxwell S/N, 36310 Vigo, Spain. dchaves@gradiant.org.

ABSTRACT
Smart cities are expected to improve the quality of life of citizens by relying on new paradigms, such as the Internet of Things (IoT) and its capacity to manage and interconnect thousands of sensors and actuators scattered across the city. At the same time, mobile devices widely assist professional and personal everyday activities. A very good example of the potential of these devices for smart cities is their powerful support for intuitive service interfaces (such as those based on augmented reality (AR)) for non-expert users. In our work, we consider a scenario that combines IoT and AR within a smart city maintenance service to improve the accessibility of sensor and actuator devices in the field, where responsiveness is crucial. In it, depending on the location and needs of each service, data and commands will be transported by an urban communications network or consulted on the spot. Direct AR interaction with urban objects has already been described; it usually relies on 2D visual codes to deliver object identifiers (IDs) to the rendering device to identify object resources. These IDs allow information about the objects to be retrieved from a remote server. In this work, we present a novel solution that replaces static AR markers with dynamic markers based on LED communication, which can be decoded through cameras embedded in smartphones. These dynamic markers can directly deliver sensor information to the rendering device, on top of the object ID, without further network interaction.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Maximum dynamic marker detection distance versus marker size.
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f17-sensors-15-16083: Maximum dynamic marker detection distance versus marker size.

Mentions: Another relevant performance evaluation target was the maximum detection distance, to assess the usability of the system proposed against other technologies that cannot attain both high directionality and relatively long ranges, such as NFC, RFID, WiFi and Bluetooth. This distance is directly proportional to the actual size of the marker. Figure 17 shows the maximum detection distances for our mobile device, for dynamic marker sizes between 2 cm and 10 cm. Smaller sizes would be unfeasible, as the resulting distances would not be valid for AR applications. Nevertheless, bigger sizes would be indeed feasible and even desirable, if longer detection distances are necessary. For example, it would be possible to arrange the marker LEDs around the electrical panel. The prototype presented in this paper used a 6 × 6 cm marker yielding a maximum interaction distance of about 160 cm.


Providing IoT Services in Smart Cities through Dynamic Augmented Reality Markers.

Chaves-Diéguez D, Pellitero-Rivero A, García-Coego D, González-Castaño FJ, Rodríguez-Hernández PS, Piñeiro-Gómez Ó, Gil-Castiñeira F, Costa-Montenegro E - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Maximum dynamic marker detection distance versus marker size.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4541869&req=5

f17-sensors-15-16083: Maximum dynamic marker detection distance versus marker size.
Mentions: Another relevant performance evaluation target was the maximum detection distance, to assess the usability of the system proposed against other technologies that cannot attain both high directionality and relatively long ranges, such as NFC, RFID, WiFi and Bluetooth. This distance is directly proportional to the actual size of the marker. Figure 17 shows the maximum detection distances for our mobile device, for dynamic marker sizes between 2 cm and 10 cm. Smaller sizes would be unfeasible, as the resulting distances would not be valid for AR applications. Nevertheless, bigger sizes would be indeed feasible and even desirable, if longer detection distances are necessary. For example, it would be possible to arrange the marker LEDs around the electrical panel. The prototype presented in this paper used a 6 × 6 cm marker yielding a maximum interaction distance of about 160 cm.

Bottom Line: These IDs allow information about the objects to be retrieved from a remote server.In this work, we present a novel solution that replaces static AR markers with dynamic markers based on LED communication, which can be decoded through cameras embedded in smartphones.These dynamic markers can directly deliver sensor information to the rendering device, on top of the object ID, without further network interaction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: AtlantTIC, Universidade de Vigo, Rúa Maxwell S/N, 36310 Vigo, Spain. dchaves@gradiant.org.

ABSTRACT
Smart cities are expected to improve the quality of life of citizens by relying on new paradigms, such as the Internet of Things (IoT) and its capacity to manage and interconnect thousands of sensors and actuators scattered across the city. At the same time, mobile devices widely assist professional and personal everyday activities. A very good example of the potential of these devices for smart cities is their powerful support for intuitive service interfaces (such as those based on augmented reality (AR)) for non-expert users. In our work, we consider a scenario that combines IoT and AR within a smart city maintenance service to improve the accessibility of sensor and actuator devices in the field, where responsiveness is crucial. In it, depending on the location and needs of each service, data and commands will be transported by an urban communications network or consulted on the spot. Direct AR interaction with urban objects has already been described; it usually relies on 2D visual codes to deliver object identifiers (IDs) to the rendering device to identify object resources. These IDs allow information about the objects to be retrieved from a remote server. In this work, we present a novel solution that replaces static AR markers with dynamic markers based on LED communication, which can be decoded through cameras embedded in smartphones. These dynamic markers can directly deliver sensor information to the rendering device, on top of the object ID, without further network interaction.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus