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Impact of extrusion processing conditions on lipid peroxidation and storage stability of full-fat flaxseed meal.

Imran M, Anjum FM, Ahmad N, Khan MK, Mushtaq Z, Nadeem M, Hussain S - Lipids Health Dis (2015)

Bottom Line: The extrusion processing at high barrel exit temperature (140 °C) significantly reduced the cyanogenic compounds (84 %), tannin (73 %) and mucilage (27 %) in the flaxseed meal.The α-linolenic acid content and lipid peroxidation did not significantly change after extrusion processing or during storage at the end of 60 days.The present study suggested that extrusion of flaxseed meal at optimum conditions and stored for 60 days did not change the stability of full-fat flaxseed meal and can be used as supplement or ingredient for the production of various healthier products.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Home and Food Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Government College University, Faisalabad, 38000, Pakistan. imran@gcuf.edu.pk.

ABSTRACT

Background: The full-fat flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) meal has obtained relatively new flourished concept as food or feedstuff for the development of healthier products. It provides favorable balance of polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids. However, flaxseed meal may be susceptible to oxidation by exposure to various storage conditions which is extremely undesirable and produces toxic compounds to human health. Another consideration in the application of flaxseed meal relates to the presence of anti-nutritional compounds that need to be minimized using appropriate processing method. The present research work was conducted to evaluate the impact of extrusion processing conditions and storage of full-fat flaxseed meal on functional characteristics such as α-linolenic acid content, lipid peroxidation and sensory attributes.

Methods: The raw flaxseed meal was analyzed for cyanogenic glycosides, tannin and mucilage anti-nutritional compounds. Fatty acids composition was quantified by gas chromatography. The meal was extruded at barrel exit temperature (100-140 °C), screw speed (50-150 rpm), feed rate (30-90 kg/h) and feed moisture (10-30 %) for reduction of anti-nutritional compounds. The raw and extruded meals were stored for a ninety-day period under room conditions (20-25 °C). Lipid peroxidation was analyzed by peroxide, free fatty acids, conjugated dienes, total volatiles and malondialdehyde assay. Color, aroma and overall acceptability attributes were evaluated by sensory multiple comparison tests.

Results: The raw flaxseed meal possessed significant amount of anti-nutritional compounds, lipid and α-linolenic acid contents. The extrusion processing at high barrel exit temperature (140 °C) significantly reduced the cyanogenic compounds (84 %), tannin (73 %) and mucilage (27 %) in the flaxseed meal. The α-linolenic acid content and lipid peroxidation did not significantly change after extrusion processing or during storage at the end of 60 days. Fluctuations in sensory attributes occurred during storage, but at the end of 90 days, only the extruded samples presented negative effect and showed lowest consumer acceptability.

Conclusions: The present study suggested that extrusion of flaxseed meal at optimum conditions and stored for 60 days did not change the stability of full-fat flaxseed meal and can be used as supplement or ingredient for the production of various healthier products.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of extrusion processing conditions and storage period on sensory attributes of full-fat flaxseed meal (a: Color, b: Aroma and c: Overall acceptability)
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Fig2: Effect of extrusion processing conditions and storage period on sensory attributes of full-fat flaxseed meal (a: Color, b: Aroma and c: Overall acceptability)

Mentions: The results of sensory characteristics point out the differences between samples acceptability and also indicate the changes in evaluated sensory properties after 90 days of storage time. The results from Fig. 2 indicated that the extrusion processing and storage negatively affected the preservation of color and aroma of the flaxseed meal samples. The flaxseed meal samples obtained from raw seeds showed color (Fig. 2a) and aroma (Fig. 2b) stability higher than the extruded meal samples. The sensory panel could not almost detect any differences in the sensory properties of fresh or stored raw flaxseed meal samples. Average sensory scores of assigned to color, aroma and overall acceptability (Fig. 2c) attributes varied in a quite narrow range for all extruded flaxseed meal samples at the initial days of storage., regardless of applied extrusion processing conditions. The lowest evaluation scores were recorded for samples extruded at high BET and FM conditions after 90 days. Morais et al. [15] found significant difference for tested sensory parameters among the brown flaxseed whole flour samples treated in oven at 150 °C for 15 minutes and stored for thirty days, and scores remained between equal and slightly below the standard. However; no effect of time of storage on aroma and color attributes was found for raw meal in the same study. The assessors were not able to record a difference in odor characteristics among the fresh and stored flaxseed samples [38].Fig 2


Impact of extrusion processing conditions on lipid peroxidation and storage stability of full-fat flaxseed meal.

Imran M, Anjum FM, Ahmad N, Khan MK, Mushtaq Z, Nadeem M, Hussain S - Lipids Health Dis (2015)

Effect of extrusion processing conditions and storage period on sensory attributes of full-fat flaxseed meal (a: Color, b: Aroma and c: Overall acceptability)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4541741&req=5

Fig2: Effect of extrusion processing conditions and storage period on sensory attributes of full-fat flaxseed meal (a: Color, b: Aroma and c: Overall acceptability)
Mentions: The results of sensory characteristics point out the differences between samples acceptability and also indicate the changes in evaluated sensory properties after 90 days of storage time. The results from Fig. 2 indicated that the extrusion processing and storage negatively affected the preservation of color and aroma of the flaxseed meal samples. The flaxseed meal samples obtained from raw seeds showed color (Fig. 2a) and aroma (Fig. 2b) stability higher than the extruded meal samples. The sensory panel could not almost detect any differences in the sensory properties of fresh or stored raw flaxseed meal samples. Average sensory scores of assigned to color, aroma and overall acceptability (Fig. 2c) attributes varied in a quite narrow range for all extruded flaxseed meal samples at the initial days of storage., regardless of applied extrusion processing conditions. The lowest evaluation scores were recorded for samples extruded at high BET and FM conditions after 90 days. Morais et al. [15] found significant difference for tested sensory parameters among the brown flaxseed whole flour samples treated in oven at 150 °C for 15 minutes and stored for thirty days, and scores remained between equal and slightly below the standard. However; no effect of time of storage on aroma and color attributes was found for raw meal in the same study. The assessors were not able to record a difference in odor characteristics among the fresh and stored flaxseed samples [38].Fig 2

Bottom Line: The extrusion processing at high barrel exit temperature (140 °C) significantly reduced the cyanogenic compounds (84 %), tannin (73 %) and mucilage (27 %) in the flaxseed meal.The α-linolenic acid content and lipid peroxidation did not significantly change after extrusion processing or during storage at the end of 60 days.The present study suggested that extrusion of flaxseed meal at optimum conditions and stored for 60 days did not change the stability of full-fat flaxseed meal and can be used as supplement or ingredient for the production of various healthier products.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Home and Food Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Government College University, Faisalabad, 38000, Pakistan. imran@gcuf.edu.pk.

ABSTRACT

Background: The full-fat flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) meal has obtained relatively new flourished concept as food or feedstuff for the development of healthier products. It provides favorable balance of polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids. However, flaxseed meal may be susceptible to oxidation by exposure to various storage conditions which is extremely undesirable and produces toxic compounds to human health. Another consideration in the application of flaxseed meal relates to the presence of anti-nutritional compounds that need to be minimized using appropriate processing method. The present research work was conducted to evaluate the impact of extrusion processing conditions and storage of full-fat flaxseed meal on functional characteristics such as α-linolenic acid content, lipid peroxidation and sensory attributes.

Methods: The raw flaxseed meal was analyzed for cyanogenic glycosides, tannin and mucilage anti-nutritional compounds. Fatty acids composition was quantified by gas chromatography. The meal was extruded at barrel exit temperature (100-140 °C), screw speed (50-150 rpm), feed rate (30-90 kg/h) and feed moisture (10-30 %) for reduction of anti-nutritional compounds. The raw and extruded meals were stored for a ninety-day period under room conditions (20-25 °C). Lipid peroxidation was analyzed by peroxide, free fatty acids, conjugated dienes, total volatiles and malondialdehyde assay. Color, aroma and overall acceptability attributes were evaluated by sensory multiple comparison tests.

Results: The raw flaxseed meal possessed significant amount of anti-nutritional compounds, lipid and α-linolenic acid contents. The extrusion processing at high barrel exit temperature (140 °C) significantly reduced the cyanogenic compounds (84 %), tannin (73 %) and mucilage (27 %) in the flaxseed meal. The α-linolenic acid content and lipid peroxidation did not significantly change after extrusion processing or during storage at the end of 60 days. Fluctuations in sensory attributes occurred during storage, but at the end of 90 days, only the extruded samples presented negative effect and showed lowest consumer acceptability.

Conclusions: The present study suggested that extrusion of flaxseed meal at optimum conditions and stored for 60 days did not change the stability of full-fat flaxseed meal and can be used as supplement or ingredient for the production of various healthier products.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus