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Divergent cerebrospinal fluid cytokine network induced by non-viral and different viral infections on the central nervous system.

Bastos MS, Coelho-Dos-Reis JG, Zauli DA, Naveca FG, Monte RL, Pimentel JP, Macário VM, da Silva NL, Peruhype-Magalhães V, Pascoal-Xavier MA, Guimaraes A, Carvalho AT, Malheiro A, Martins-Filho OA, Mourão MP - BMC Infect. Dis. (2015)

Bottom Line: The results demonstrate that an altered biochemical profile alongside increased cellularity in the cerebrospinal fluid is a feature of patients with meningoencephalitis that are not associated with the detection of virus in the CNS (P < 0.05).In the case of Enterovirus infection (n = 13), meningoencephalitis elicits robust intrathecal pro-inflammatory cytokine pattern and elevated cellularity when compared to herpesvirus (n = 15) and Arbovirus (n = 5) viral infections (P < 0.05).Differences in the cytokine profile of the CSF may be unique if distinct, viral or presumably non-viral pathways initially trigger the inflammatory response in the CNS.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Tropical Medicine Foundation Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado, Manaus, AM, Brazil. michelebastos01@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Meningoencephalitis is one of the most common disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) worldwide. Viral meningoencephalitis differs from bacterial meningitis in several aspects. In some developing countries, bacterial meningitis has appropriate clinical management and chemotherapy is available. Virus-associated and virus not detected meningoencephalitis are treatable, however, they may cause death in a few cases. The knowledge of how mediators of inflammation can induce disease would contribute for the design of affordable therapeutic strategies, as well as to the diagnosis of virus not detected and viral meningoencephalitis. Cytokine-induced inflammation to CNS requires several factors that are not fully understood yet.

Methods: Considering this, several cytokines were measured in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with undiagnosed and viral meningoencephalitis, and these were correlated with cellularity in the CSF.

Results: The results demonstrate that an altered biochemical profile alongside increased cellularity in the cerebrospinal fluid is a feature of patients with meningoencephalitis that are not associated with the detection of virus in the CNS (P < 0.05). Moreover, HIV-positive patients (n = 10) that evolve with meningoencephalitis display a distinct biochemical/cytological profile (P < 0.05) in the cerebrospinal fluid. Meningoencephalitis brings about a prominent intrathecal cytokine storm regardless of the detection of virus as presumable etiological agent. In the case of Enterovirus infection (n = 13), meningoencephalitis elicits robust intrathecal pro-inflammatory cytokine pattern and elevated cellularity when compared to herpesvirus (n = 15) and Arbovirus (n = 5) viral infections (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Differences in the cytokine profile of the CSF may be unique if distinct, viral or presumably non-viral pathways initially trigger the inflammatory response in the CNS.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Cytokine profile of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in meningoencephalitis. Levels of the cytokines IL-6, IL-12, IL-17, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-10 were measured in the CSF of control samples, virus not detected (undiagnosed) and virus-positive patients with meningoencephalitis. Cytokine levels in the CSF were evaluated by cytometric beads array (CBA) as described in Material and Methods. Results are expressed as Mean Fluorescence Intensity (MFI) plotted in bars with standard error. Statistical differences between groups are highlighted as connecting lines
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Fig2: Cytokine profile of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in meningoencephalitis. Levels of the cytokines IL-6, IL-12, IL-17, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-10 were measured in the CSF of control samples, virus not detected (undiagnosed) and virus-positive patients with meningoencephalitis. Cytokine levels in the CSF were evaluated by cytometric beads array (CBA) as described in Material and Methods. Results are expressed as Mean Fluorescence Intensity (MFI) plotted in bars with standard error. Statistical differences between groups are highlighted as connecting lines

Mentions: The cytokines IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17, TNF-α and IFN-γ were evaluated in the Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with meningoencephalitis with and without viral infections as well as in control CSF samples using the cytometric bead array (CBA – BD biosciences). Results are illustrated in Fig. 2. The levels of all cytokines tested were significantly higher in patients with meningoencephalitis regardless of the presence of viral infection. Meningoencephalitis presumably caused by Enterovirus infection elicits robust intrathecal pro-inflammatory cytokine pattern, with statistically higher levels of IL-6, TNF and IL-17. The inverse is observed for Arbovirus infection. Enterovirus and Lentivirus groups showed significantly higher levels of IL-12 and IFN-γ when compared to Arbovirus group. Enterovirus and Herpesvirus groups showed significantly higher levels of IL-10 when compared to Arbovirus group (Fig. 2).Fig. 2


Divergent cerebrospinal fluid cytokine network induced by non-viral and different viral infections on the central nervous system.

Bastos MS, Coelho-Dos-Reis JG, Zauli DA, Naveca FG, Monte RL, Pimentel JP, Macário VM, da Silva NL, Peruhype-Magalhães V, Pascoal-Xavier MA, Guimaraes A, Carvalho AT, Malheiro A, Martins-Filho OA, Mourão MP - BMC Infect. Dis. (2015)

Cytokine profile of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in meningoencephalitis. Levels of the cytokines IL-6, IL-12, IL-17, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-10 were measured in the CSF of control samples, virus not detected (undiagnosed) and virus-positive patients with meningoencephalitis. Cytokine levels in the CSF were evaluated by cytometric beads array (CBA) as described in Material and Methods. Results are expressed as Mean Fluorescence Intensity (MFI) plotted in bars with standard error. Statistical differences between groups are highlighted as connecting lines
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4541733&req=5

Fig2: Cytokine profile of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in meningoencephalitis. Levels of the cytokines IL-6, IL-12, IL-17, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-10 were measured in the CSF of control samples, virus not detected (undiagnosed) and virus-positive patients with meningoencephalitis. Cytokine levels in the CSF were evaluated by cytometric beads array (CBA) as described in Material and Methods. Results are expressed as Mean Fluorescence Intensity (MFI) plotted in bars with standard error. Statistical differences between groups are highlighted as connecting lines
Mentions: The cytokines IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17, TNF-α and IFN-γ were evaluated in the Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with meningoencephalitis with and without viral infections as well as in control CSF samples using the cytometric bead array (CBA – BD biosciences). Results are illustrated in Fig. 2. The levels of all cytokines tested were significantly higher in patients with meningoencephalitis regardless of the presence of viral infection. Meningoencephalitis presumably caused by Enterovirus infection elicits robust intrathecal pro-inflammatory cytokine pattern, with statistically higher levels of IL-6, TNF and IL-17. The inverse is observed for Arbovirus infection. Enterovirus and Lentivirus groups showed significantly higher levels of IL-12 and IFN-γ when compared to Arbovirus group. Enterovirus and Herpesvirus groups showed significantly higher levels of IL-10 when compared to Arbovirus group (Fig. 2).Fig. 2

Bottom Line: The results demonstrate that an altered biochemical profile alongside increased cellularity in the cerebrospinal fluid is a feature of patients with meningoencephalitis that are not associated with the detection of virus in the CNS (P < 0.05).In the case of Enterovirus infection (n = 13), meningoencephalitis elicits robust intrathecal pro-inflammatory cytokine pattern and elevated cellularity when compared to herpesvirus (n = 15) and Arbovirus (n = 5) viral infections (P < 0.05).Differences in the cytokine profile of the CSF may be unique if distinct, viral or presumably non-viral pathways initially trigger the inflammatory response in the CNS.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Tropical Medicine Foundation Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado, Manaus, AM, Brazil. michelebastos01@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Meningoencephalitis is one of the most common disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) worldwide. Viral meningoencephalitis differs from bacterial meningitis in several aspects. In some developing countries, bacterial meningitis has appropriate clinical management and chemotherapy is available. Virus-associated and virus not detected meningoencephalitis are treatable, however, they may cause death in a few cases. The knowledge of how mediators of inflammation can induce disease would contribute for the design of affordable therapeutic strategies, as well as to the diagnosis of virus not detected and viral meningoencephalitis. Cytokine-induced inflammation to CNS requires several factors that are not fully understood yet.

Methods: Considering this, several cytokines were measured in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with undiagnosed and viral meningoencephalitis, and these were correlated with cellularity in the CSF.

Results: The results demonstrate that an altered biochemical profile alongside increased cellularity in the cerebrospinal fluid is a feature of patients with meningoencephalitis that are not associated with the detection of virus in the CNS (P < 0.05). Moreover, HIV-positive patients (n = 10) that evolve with meningoencephalitis display a distinct biochemical/cytological profile (P < 0.05) in the cerebrospinal fluid. Meningoencephalitis brings about a prominent intrathecal cytokine storm regardless of the detection of virus as presumable etiological agent. In the case of Enterovirus infection (n = 13), meningoencephalitis elicits robust intrathecal pro-inflammatory cytokine pattern and elevated cellularity when compared to herpesvirus (n = 15) and Arbovirus (n = 5) viral infections (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Differences in the cytokine profile of the CSF may be unique if distinct, viral or presumably non-viral pathways initially trigger the inflammatory response in the CNS.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus