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Relationship between salt consumption measured by 24-h urine collection and blood pressure in the adult population of Vitória (Brazil).

Rodrigues SL, Souza Júnior PR, Pimentel EB, Baldo MP, Malta DC, Mill JG, Szwarcwald CL - Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. (2015)

Bottom Line: We found a positive association between salt and body mass index (BMI) categories, as well as with salt and blood pressure, independent of age and BMI.The difference in systolic blood pressure reached 13 mmHg between subjects consuming less than 6 g/d of salt and those ingesting more than 18 g/d.Our data indicate the need for interventions to reduce sodium intake, as well the need for ongoing, appropriate monitoring of salt consumption in the general population.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES, Brasil.

ABSTRACT
High salt intake is related to an increase in blood pressure and development of hypertension. However, currently, there are no national representative data in Brazil using the gold standard method of 24-h urine collection to measure sodium consumption. This study aimed to determine salt intake based on 24-h urine collection in a sample of 272 adults of both genders and to correlate it with blood pressure levels. We used a rigorous protocol to assure an empty bladder prior to initiating urine collection. We excluded subjects with a urine volume <500 mL, collection period outside of an interval of 23-25 h, and subjects with creatinine excretion that was not within the range of 14.4-33.6 mg/kg (men) and 10.8-25.2 mg/kg (women). The mean salt intake was 10.4±4.1 g/day (d), and 94% of the participants (98% of men and 90% of women) ingested more than the recommended level of 5 g/d. We found a positive association between salt and body mass index (BMI) categories, as well as with salt and blood pressure, independent of age and BMI. The difference in systolic blood pressure reached 13 mmHg between subjects consuming less than 6 g/d of salt and those ingesting more than 18 g/d. Subjects with hypertension had a higher estimated salt intake than normotensive subjects (11.4±5.0 vs 9.8±3.6 g/d, P<0.01), regardless of whether they were under treatment. Our data indicate the need for interventions to reduce sodium intake, as well the need for ongoing, appropriate monitoring of salt consumption in the general population.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Association of salt intake with blood pressure. The left panel shows linearregression analysis between an increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressureas a function of salt intake. The right panel shows blood pressure adjusted forage and body mass index as a function of salt intake. Adjusted systolic anddiastolic blood pressures were more sensitive to salt intake over 9 g/d. Data arereported as means±SE. *P<0.01 vs <9 g/d of salt consumption(two-way ANOVA and post hoc Bonferroni test).
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f02: Association of salt intake with blood pressure. The left panel shows linearregression analysis between an increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressureas a function of salt intake. The right panel shows blood pressure adjusted forage and body mass index as a function of salt intake. Adjusted systolic anddiastolic blood pressures were more sensitive to salt intake over 9 g/d. Data arereported as means±SE. *P<0.01 vs <9 g/d of salt consumption(two-way ANOVA and post hoc Bonferroni test).

Mentions: The relationship between estimated salt consumption and BP is shown in Figure 2. Two analytical procedures were used toexamine this relationship. Initially, we tested the traditional linear model and then BPwas analyzed by categories of salt intake. Beta coefficients of the linear regressionsshowed a systolic BP increase of 0.95 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.50-1.40 mmHg)and a diastolic BP increase of 0.44 mmHg (95% CI=0.17-0.71 mmHg) for each increment of 1g/d of salt intake. However, the effect of sodium intake on BP may also depend onconfounding variables, such as BMI (Table 2).Systolic and diastolic BP, adjusted for age and BMI, is shown as a function of saltintake categories in Figure 2. We found that thepositive association between salt and systolic BP was more striking when salt intake wasgreater than 9 g/d. The difference in systolic BP reached 13 mmHg between subjects whoconsumed less than 6 g of salt and those who ingested more than 18 g of salt/d.


Relationship between salt consumption measured by 24-h urine collection and blood pressure in the adult population of Vitória (Brazil).

Rodrigues SL, Souza Júnior PR, Pimentel EB, Baldo MP, Malta DC, Mill JG, Szwarcwald CL - Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. (2015)

Association of salt intake with blood pressure. The left panel shows linearregression analysis between an increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressureas a function of salt intake. The right panel shows blood pressure adjusted forage and body mass index as a function of salt intake. Adjusted systolic anddiastolic blood pressures were more sensitive to salt intake over 9 g/d. Data arereported as means±SE. *P<0.01 vs <9 g/d of salt consumption(two-way ANOVA and post hoc Bonferroni test).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4541693&req=5

f02: Association of salt intake with blood pressure. The left panel shows linearregression analysis between an increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressureas a function of salt intake. The right panel shows blood pressure adjusted forage and body mass index as a function of salt intake. Adjusted systolic anddiastolic blood pressures were more sensitive to salt intake over 9 g/d. Data arereported as means±SE. *P<0.01 vs <9 g/d of salt consumption(two-way ANOVA and post hoc Bonferroni test).
Mentions: The relationship between estimated salt consumption and BP is shown in Figure 2. Two analytical procedures were used toexamine this relationship. Initially, we tested the traditional linear model and then BPwas analyzed by categories of salt intake. Beta coefficients of the linear regressionsshowed a systolic BP increase of 0.95 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.50-1.40 mmHg)and a diastolic BP increase of 0.44 mmHg (95% CI=0.17-0.71 mmHg) for each increment of 1g/d of salt intake. However, the effect of sodium intake on BP may also depend onconfounding variables, such as BMI (Table 2).Systolic and diastolic BP, adjusted for age and BMI, is shown as a function of saltintake categories in Figure 2. We found that thepositive association between salt and systolic BP was more striking when salt intake wasgreater than 9 g/d. The difference in systolic BP reached 13 mmHg between subjects whoconsumed less than 6 g of salt and those who ingested more than 18 g of salt/d.

Bottom Line: We found a positive association between salt and body mass index (BMI) categories, as well as with salt and blood pressure, independent of age and BMI.The difference in systolic blood pressure reached 13 mmHg between subjects consuming less than 6 g/d of salt and those ingesting more than 18 g/d.Our data indicate the need for interventions to reduce sodium intake, as well the need for ongoing, appropriate monitoring of salt consumption in the general population.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES, Brasil.

ABSTRACT
High salt intake is related to an increase in blood pressure and development of hypertension. However, currently, there are no national representative data in Brazil using the gold standard method of 24-h urine collection to measure sodium consumption. This study aimed to determine salt intake based on 24-h urine collection in a sample of 272 adults of both genders and to correlate it with blood pressure levels. We used a rigorous protocol to assure an empty bladder prior to initiating urine collection. We excluded subjects with a urine volume <500 mL, collection period outside of an interval of 23-25 h, and subjects with creatinine excretion that was not within the range of 14.4-33.6 mg/kg (men) and 10.8-25.2 mg/kg (women). The mean salt intake was 10.4±4.1 g/day (d), and 94% of the participants (98% of men and 90% of women) ingested more than the recommended level of 5 g/d. We found a positive association between salt and body mass index (BMI) categories, as well as with salt and blood pressure, independent of age and BMI. The difference in systolic blood pressure reached 13 mmHg between subjects consuming less than 6 g/d of salt and those ingesting more than 18 g/d. Subjects with hypertension had a higher estimated salt intake than normotensive subjects (11.4±5.0 vs 9.8±3.6 g/d, P<0.01), regardless of whether they were under treatment. Our data indicate the need for interventions to reduce sodium intake, as well the need for ongoing, appropriate monitoring of salt consumption in the general population.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus