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Relationship between salt consumption measured by 24-h urine collection and blood pressure in the adult population of Vitória (Brazil).

Rodrigues SL, Souza Júnior PR, Pimentel EB, Baldo MP, Malta DC, Mill JG, Szwarcwald CL - Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. (2015)

Bottom Line: We found a positive association between salt and body mass index (BMI) categories, as well as with salt and blood pressure, independent of age and BMI.The difference in systolic blood pressure reached 13 mmHg between subjects consuming less than 6 g/d of salt and those ingesting more than 18 g/d.Our data indicate the need for interventions to reduce sodium intake, as well the need for ongoing, appropriate monitoring of salt consumption in the general population.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES, Brasil.

ABSTRACT
High salt intake is related to an increase in blood pressure and development of hypertension. However, currently, there are no national representative data in Brazil using the gold standard method of 24-h urine collection to measure sodium consumption. This study aimed to determine salt intake based on 24-h urine collection in a sample of 272 adults of both genders and to correlate it with blood pressure levels. We used a rigorous protocol to assure an empty bladder prior to initiating urine collection. We excluded subjects with a urine volume <500 mL, collection period outside of an interval of 23-25 h, and subjects with creatinine excretion that was not within the range of 14.4-33.6 mg/kg (men) and 10.8-25.2 mg/kg (women). The mean salt intake was 10.4±4.1 g/day (d), and 94% of the participants (98% of men and 90% of women) ingested more than the recommended level of 5 g/d. We found a positive association between salt and body mass index (BMI) categories, as well as with salt and blood pressure, independent of age and BMI. The difference in systolic blood pressure reached 13 mmHg between subjects consuming less than 6 g/d of salt and those ingesting more than 18 g/d. Subjects with hypertension had a higher estimated salt intake than normotensive subjects (11.4±5.0 vs 9.8±3.6 g/d, P<0.01), regardless of whether they were under treatment. Our data indicate the need for interventions to reduce sodium intake, as well the need for ongoing, appropriate monitoring of salt consumption in the general population.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Distribution of salt intake by gender.
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f01: Distribution of salt intake by gender.

Mentions: Table 1 shows the characteristics of urine thatwas collected in the 24-h period. Urine volume was similar in both genders.Twenty-four-hour creatinine excretion was higher (P<0.05) in men than in women.However, when this parameter was corrected for FFM, the difference between gendersdisappeared. To estimate daily salt intake, we assumed that all of the sodium that waseliminated in the urine (4060±1631 mg) came from the diet and was ingested as NaCl. Wealso assumed that 77% of dietary potassium was excreted in the urine, based on previousreports where urinary potassium excretion was measured in volunteers with controlledpotassium ingestion (14). Based on theseassumptions, the estimated mean daily salt intake was 10.3±4.1 g, and the mean value was35% higher in men than in women (11.9 vs 8.8 g/d; P<0.05). Theestimated daily potassium intake in the overall sample was 2.9±1.2 g/d. Potassium intakewas higher in men than in women (3.3±1.4 vs 2.6±0.9 g/d; P<0.05).The distribution of salt intake in the studied sample is shown in Figure 1. A total of 85% of the participants (95% of men and 76% ofwomen) showed a salt intake greater than 6 g/d. If the actual recommendation of lessthan 5 g/d of salt is considered, then only 6.3% (2 men and 15 women) of the samplewould be considered as adherent to the actual recommendations for salt intake. Incontrast, potassium intake was low in almost all individuals. A total of 94% of thesubjects (91% of men and 97% of women) showed an estimated potassium intake less than4.7 g/day (d), which is the daily allowance recommended for this mineral (15).


Relationship between salt consumption measured by 24-h urine collection and blood pressure in the adult population of Vitória (Brazil).

Rodrigues SL, Souza Júnior PR, Pimentel EB, Baldo MP, Malta DC, Mill JG, Szwarcwald CL - Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. (2015)

Distribution of salt intake by gender.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4541693&req=5

f01: Distribution of salt intake by gender.
Mentions: Table 1 shows the characteristics of urine thatwas collected in the 24-h period. Urine volume was similar in both genders.Twenty-four-hour creatinine excretion was higher (P<0.05) in men than in women.However, when this parameter was corrected for FFM, the difference between gendersdisappeared. To estimate daily salt intake, we assumed that all of the sodium that waseliminated in the urine (4060±1631 mg) came from the diet and was ingested as NaCl. Wealso assumed that 77% of dietary potassium was excreted in the urine, based on previousreports where urinary potassium excretion was measured in volunteers with controlledpotassium ingestion (14). Based on theseassumptions, the estimated mean daily salt intake was 10.3±4.1 g, and the mean value was35% higher in men than in women (11.9 vs 8.8 g/d; P<0.05). Theestimated daily potassium intake in the overall sample was 2.9±1.2 g/d. Potassium intakewas higher in men than in women (3.3±1.4 vs 2.6±0.9 g/d; P<0.05).The distribution of salt intake in the studied sample is shown in Figure 1. A total of 85% of the participants (95% of men and 76% ofwomen) showed a salt intake greater than 6 g/d. If the actual recommendation of lessthan 5 g/d of salt is considered, then only 6.3% (2 men and 15 women) of the samplewould be considered as adherent to the actual recommendations for salt intake. Incontrast, potassium intake was low in almost all individuals. A total of 94% of thesubjects (91% of men and 97% of women) showed an estimated potassium intake less than4.7 g/day (d), which is the daily allowance recommended for this mineral (15).

Bottom Line: We found a positive association between salt and body mass index (BMI) categories, as well as with salt and blood pressure, independent of age and BMI.The difference in systolic blood pressure reached 13 mmHg between subjects consuming less than 6 g/d of salt and those ingesting more than 18 g/d.Our data indicate the need for interventions to reduce sodium intake, as well the need for ongoing, appropriate monitoring of salt consumption in the general population.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES, Brasil.

ABSTRACT
High salt intake is related to an increase in blood pressure and development of hypertension. However, currently, there are no national representative data in Brazil using the gold standard method of 24-h urine collection to measure sodium consumption. This study aimed to determine salt intake based on 24-h urine collection in a sample of 272 adults of both genders and to correlate it with blood pressure levels. We used a rigorous protocol to assure an empty bladder prior to initiating urine collection. We excluded subjects with a urine volume <500 mL, collection period outside of an interval of 23-25 h, and subjects with creatinine excretion that was not within the range of 14.4-33.6 mg/kg (men) and 10.8-25.2 mg/kg (women). The mean salt intake was 10.4±4.1 g/day (d), and 94% of the participants (98% of men and 90% of women) ingested more than the recommended level of 5 g/d. We found a positive association between salt and body mass index (BMI) categories, as well as with salt and blood pressure, independent of age and BMI. The difference in systolic blood pressure reached 13 mmHg between subjects consuming less than 6 g/d of salt and those ingesting more than 18 g/d. Subjects with hypertension had a higher estimated salt intake than normotensive subjects (11.4±5.0 vs 9.8±3.6 g/d, P<0.01), regardless of whether they were under treatment. Our data indicate the need for interventions to reduce sodium intake, as well the need for ongoing, appropriate monitoring of salt consumption in the general population.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus