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Plasticity of neutrophils reveals modulatory capacity.

Perobelli SM, Galvani RG, Gonçalves-Silva T, Xavier CR, Nóbrega A, Bonomo A - Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. (2015)

Bottom Line: Neutrophils have also been shown to produce a wide range of cytokines that have pro- or anti-inflammatory activity, adding a modulatory role for this cell, previously known as a suicide effector.The presence of cytokines almost always implies intercellular modulation, potentially unmasking interactions of neutrophils with other immune cells.These cells can switch phenotypes and exert functions beyond cytotoxicity against invading pathogens, extending the view of neutrophils beyond suicide effectors to include functions as regulatory and suppressor cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Imunologia, Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

ABSTRACT
Neutrophils are widely known as proinflammatory cells associated with tissue damage and for their early arrival at sites of infection, where they exert their phagocytic activity, release their granule contents, and subsequently die. However, this view has been challenged by emerging evidence that neutrophils have other activities and are not so short-lived. Following activation, neutrophil effector functions include production and release of granule contents, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Neutrophils have also been shown to produce a wide range of cytokines that have pro- or anti-inflammatory activity, adding a modulatory role for this cell, previously known as a suicide effector. The presence of cytokines almost always implies intercellular modulation, potentially unmasking interactions of neutrophils with other immune cells. In fact, neutrophils have been found to help B cells and to modulate dendritic cell (DC), macrophage, and T-cell activities. In this review, we describe some ways in which neutrophils influence the inflammatory environment in infection, cancer, and autoimmunity, regulating both innate and adaptive immune responses. These cells can switch phenotypes and exert functions beyond cytotoxicity against invading pathogens, extending the view of neutrophils beyond suicide effectors to include functions as regulatory and suppressor cells.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Representative image illustrating the view of neutrophils as “bad guys”.Searches of the Medline database (PubMed) using a broad strategy were preformed toidentify studies related to “good” and “bad” neutrophil profiles. The number ofpublications returned in each search was entered into an igraph¯ library creatingthe representation depicted. The relationships (or edges) between the terms andneutrophils are presented by arrows and the terms are presented by circles (ornodes). The size of each is proportional to the number of publications returned.On the left side, the graph shows the publications until 2003 and on the right,from 2004 until 2014. Data were collected on November 15, 2014.
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f04: Representative image illustrating the view of neutrophils as “bad guys”.Searches of the Medline database (PubMed) using a broad strategy were preformed toidentify studies related to “good” and “bad” neutrophil profiles. The number ofpublications returned in each search was entered into an igraph¯ library creatingthe representation depicted. The relationships (or edges) between the terms andneutrophils are presented by arrows and the terms are presented by circles (ornodes). The size of each is proportional to the number of publications returned.On the left side, the graph shows the publications until 2003 and on the right,from 2004 until 2014. Data were collected on November 15, 2014.

Mentions: During the last 10 years (2004-2014), 8003 articles have been published interpretingneutrophils as “bad” guys contributing to disease pathology; while only 3060 describedneutrophils as “good” guys, or contributing to disease protection or resolution (Figure 4). A search for articles published up to theyear 2003 revealed 7284 papers pointing to the “bad” and 3113 to the “good”, which isnot very different from what has been published in the last 10 years (Figure 4). The results of a search on the keywords“neutrophils AND protumorigenic” suggested that many tumor-helping neutrophilinteractions have only recently been identified (Figure4). Of note, and related to the topics addressed in this present review,almost twice as many papers on proinflammatory neutrophils available in the PubMeddatabase have been published in the last 10 years than all the preceding years. When“homeostasis AND neutrophils” were searched, 60% more papers were published in the past10 years than previously. These suggest a better appreciation of the regulatory role ofneutrophils has developed in recent years, regardless of the potential pathologicalsignificance. The majority of the “good” activities of neutrophils relate to papersdealing with protection, which makes sense because their best-known effector function ispathogen elimination. Recognition of neutrophils as suppressors of inflammation tomaintain homeostasis, tolerance, or even anti-tumorigenic activity has not increased asrapidly as the other aspects reviewed (Figure 4).We believe that in the near future, studies of suppressor neutrophils and theirparticular features will be of benefit to patients with immune-related diseases.


Plasticity of neutrophils reveals modulatory capacity.

Perobelli SM, Galvani RG, Gonçalves-Silva T, Xavier CR, Nóbrega A, Bonomo A - Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. (2015)

Representative image illustrating the view of neutrophils as “bad guys”.Searches of the Medline database (PubMed) using a broad strategy were preformed toidentify studies related to “good” and “bad” neutrophil profiles. The number ofpublications returned in each search was entered into an igraph¯ library creatingthe representation depicted. The relationships (or edges) between the terms andneutrophils are presented by arrows and the terms are presented by circles (ornodes). The size of each is proportional to the number of publications returned.On the left side, the graph shows the publications until 2003 and on the right,from 2004 until 2014. Data were collected on November 15, 2014.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4541684&req=5

f04: Representative image illustrating the view of neutrophils as “bad guys”.Searches of the Medline database (PubMed) using a broad strategy were preformed toidentify studies related to “good” and “bad” neutrophil profiles. The number ofpublications returned in each search was entered into an igraph¯ library creatingthe representation depicted. The relationships (or edges) between the terms andneutrophils are presented by arrows and the terms are presented by circles (ornodes). The size of each is proportional to the number of publications returned.On the left side, the graph shows the publications until 2003 and on the right,from 2004 until 2014. Data were collected on November 15, 2014.
Mentions: During the last 10 years (2004-2014), 8003 articles have been published interpretingneutrophils as “bad” guys contributing to disease pathology; while only 3060 describedneutrophils as “good” guys, or contributing to disease protection or resolution (Figure 4). A search for articles published up to theyear 2003 revealed 7284 papers pointing to the “bad” and 3113 to the “good”, which isnot very different from what has been published in the last 10 years (Figure 4). The results of a search on the keywords“neutrophils AND protumorigenic” suggested that many tumor-helping neutrophilinteractions have only recently been identified (Figure4). Of note, and related to the topics addressed in this present review,almost twice as many papers on proinflammatory neutrophils available in the PubMeddatabase have been published in the last 10 years than all the preceding years. When“homeostasis AND neutrophils” were searched, 60% more papers were published in the past10 years than previously. These suggest a better appreciation of the regulatory role ofneutrophils has developed in recent years, regardless of the potential pathologicalsignificance. The majority of the “good” activities of neutrophils relate to papersdealing with protection, which makes sense because their best-known effector function ispathogen elimination. Recognition of neutrophils as suppressors of inflammation tomaintain homeostasis, tolerance, or even anti-tumorigenic activity has not increased asrapidly as the other aspects reviewed (Figure 4).We believe that in the near future, studies of suppressor neutrophils and theirparticular features will be of benefit to patients with immune-related diseases.

Bottom Line: Neutrophils have also been shown to produce a wide range of cytokines that have pro- or anti-inflammatory activity, adding a modulatory role for this cell, previously known as a suicide effector.The presence of cytokines almost always implies intercellular modulation, potentially unmasking interactions of neutrophils with other immune cells.These cells can switch phenotypes and exert functions beyond cytotoxicity against invading pathogens, extending the view of neutrophils beyond suicide effectors to include functions as regulatory and suppressor cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Imunologia, Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

ABSTRACT
Neutrophils are widely known as proinflammatory cells associated with tissue damage and for their early arrival at sites of infection, where they exert their phagocytic activity, release their granule contents, and subsequently die. However, this view has been challenged by emerging evidence that neutrophils have other activities and are not so short-lived. Following activation, neutrophil effector functions include production and release of granule contents, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Neutrophils have also been shown to produce a wide range of cytokines that have pro- or anti-inflammatory activity, adding a modulatory role for this cell, previously known as a suicide effector. The presence of cytokines almost always implies intercellular modulation, potentially unmasking interactions of neutrophils with other immune cells. In fact, neutrophils have been found to help B cells and to modulate dendritic cell (DC), macrophage, and T-cell activities. In this review, we describe some ways in which neutrophils influence the inflammatory environment in infection, cancer, and autoimmunity, regulating both innate and adaptive immune responses. These cells can switch phenotypes and exert functions beyond cytotoxicity against invading pathogens, extending the view of neutrophils beyond suicide effectors to include functions as regulatory and suppressor cells.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus