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Plasticity of neutrophils reveals modulatory capacity.

Perobelli SM, Galvani RG, Gonçalves-Silva T, Xavier CR, Nóbrega A, Bonomo A - Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. (2015)

Bottom Line: Neutrophils have also been shown to produce a wide range of cytokines that have pro- or anti-inflammatory activity, adding a modulatory role for this cell, previously known as a suicide effector.The presence of cytokines almost always implies intercellular modulation, potentially unmasking interactions of neutrophils with other immune cells.These cells can switch phenotypes and exert functions beyond cytotoxicity against invading pathogens, extending the view of neutrophils beyond suicide effectors to include functions as regulatory and suppressor cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Imunologia, Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

ABSTRACT
Neutrophils are widely known as proinflammatory cells associated with tissue damage and for their early arrival at sites of infection, where they exert their phagocytic activity, release their granule contents, and subsequently die. However, this view has been challenged by emerging evidence that neutrophils have other activities and are not so short-lived. Following activation, neutrophil effector functions include production and release of granule contents, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Neutrophils have also been shown to produce a wide range of cytokines that have pro- or anti-inflammatory activity, adding a modulatory role for this cell, previously known as a suicide effector. The presence of cytokines almost always implies intercellular modulation, potentially unmasking interactions of neutrophils with other immune cells. In fact, neutrophils have been found to help B cells and to modulate dendritic cell (DC), macrophage, and T-cell activities. In this review, we describe some ways in which neutrophils influence the inflammatory environment in infection, cancer, and autoimmunity, regulating both innate and adaptive immune responses. These cells can switch phenotypes and exert functions beyond cytotoxicity against invading pathogens, extending the view of neutrophils beyond suicide effectors to include functions as regulatory and suppressor cells.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Mechanisms used by neutrophils to control infection. Phagocytosis is a primarymechanism of pathogen elimination. Upon activation, usually through recognition bytoll-like receptors (TLRs), neutrophils can degranulate, releasing their granulecontent. Neutrophils can also release nuclear contents along with the granulecontents, “trapping” and killing the microorganism through neutrophilextracellular traps (NETs).
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f01: Mechanisms used by neutrophils to control infection. Phagocytosis is a primarymechanism of pathogen elimination. Upon activation, usually through recognition bytoll-like receptors (TLRs), neutrophils can degranulate, releasing their granulecontent. Neutrophils can also release nuclear contents along with the granulecontents, “trapping” and killing the microorganism through neutrophilextracellular traps (NETs).

Mentions: The immune functions of neutrophils involve three key activities. These are productionand release of granules that store molecules with active microbicidal activity;generation and release of oxidative bursts, i.e., reactive oxygen species (ROS) such asO2-, H2O2, HOCl, and OH; and release of neutrophilextracellular traps (NETs, Figure 1) (5). Defects in either of the first two activitiesresult in severe immunodeficiency such as neutrophil-specific granule deficiencies orchronic granulomatous disease. Moreover, neutropenia can present as a wide range ofdiseases, from transient suppression to serious systemic diseases. The clinicalsignificance of neutropenia ranges from a mild laboratory abnormality to severedisorders characterized by recurrent life-threatening infections. The nature of theconditions underlines their essential role in innate immunity and resistance toinfections (6).


Plasticity of neutrophils reveals modulatory capacity.

Perobelli SM, Galvani RG, Gonçalves-Silva T, Xavier CR, Nóbrega A, Bonomo A - Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. (2015)

Mechanisms used by neutrophils to control infection. Phagocytosis is a primarymechanism of pathogen elimination. Upon activation, usually through recognition bytoll-like receptors (TLRs), neutrophils can degranulate, releasing their granulecontent. Neutrophils can also release nuclear contents along with the granulecontents, “trapping” and killing the microorganism through neutrophilextracellular traps (NETs).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4541684&req=5

f01: Mechanisms used by neutrophils to control infection. Phagocytosis is a primarymechanism of pathogen elimination. Upon activation, usually through recognition bytoll-like receptors (TLRs), neutrophils can degranulate, releasing their granulecontent. Neutrophils can also release nuclear contents along with the granulecontents, “trapping” and killing the microorganism through neutrophilextracellular traps (NETs).
Mentions: The immune functions of neutrophils involve three key activities. These are productionand release of granules that store molecules with active microbicidal activity;generation and release of oxidative bursts, i.e., reactive oxygen species (ROS) such asO2-, H2O2, HOCl, and OH; and release of neutrophilextracellular traps (NETs, Figure 1) (5). Defects in either of the first two activitiesresult in severe immunodeficiency such as neutrophil-specific granule deficiencies orchronic granulomatous disease. Moreover, neutropenia can present as a wide range ofdiseases, from transient suppression to serious systemic diseases. The clinicalsignificance of neutropenia ranges from a mild laboratory abnormality to severedisorders characterized by recurrent life-threatening infections. The nature of theconditions underlines their essential role in innate immunity and resistance toinfections (6).

Bottom Line: Neutrophils have also been shown to produce a wide range of cytokines that have pro- or anti-inflammatory activity, adding a modulatory role for this cell, previously known as a suicide effector.The presence of cytokines almost always implies intercellular modulation, potentially unmasking interactions of neutrophils with other immune cells.These cells can switch phenotypes and exert functions beyond cytotoxicity against invading pathogens, extending the view of neutrophils beyond suicide effectors to include functions as regulatory and suppressor cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Imunologia, Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

ABSTRACT
Neutrophils are widely known as proinflammatory cells associated with tissue damage and for their early arrival at sites of infection, where they exert their phagocytic activity, release their granule contents, and subsequently die. However, this view has been challenged by emerging evidence that neutrophils have other activities and are not so short-lived. Following activation, neutrophil effector functions include production and release of granule contents, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Neutrophils have also been shown to produce a wide range of cytokines that have pro- or anti-inflammatory activity, adding a modulatory role for this cell, previously known as a suicide effector. The presence of cytokines almost always implies intercellular modulation, potentially unmasking interactions of neutrophils with other immune cells. In fact, neutrophils have been found to help B cells and to modulate dendritic cell (DC), macrophage, and T-cell activities. In this review, we describe some ways in which neutrophils influence the inflammatory environment in infection, cancer, and autoimmunity, regulating both innate and adaptive immune responses. These cells can switch phenotypes and exert functions beyond cytotoxicity against invading pathogens, extending the view of neutrophils beyond suicide effectors to include functions as regulatory and suppressor cells.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus