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Analysis of Age-Related Changes in Asian Facial Skeletons Using 3D Vector Mathematics on Picture Archiving and Communication System Computed Tomography.

Kim SJ, Kim SJ, Park JS, Byun SW, Bae JH - Yonsei Med. J. (2015)

Bottom Line: All 4 midfacial angles in females and glabellar and maxillary angles in males showed statistically significant decreases with aging.On the other hand, the orbital and pyriform widths did not show statistically significant changes with aging.The results of this study suggest that Asian midfacial skeletons may change continuously throughout life, and that there may be significant differences in the midfacial skeleton between both sexes and between ethnic groups.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Ewha Womans University, School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: There are marked differences in facial skeletal characteristics between Asian and Caucasian. However, ethnic differences in age-related facial skeletal changes have not yet been fully established. The aims of this study were to evaluate age-related changes in Asian midfacial skeletons and to explore ethnic differences in facial skeletal structures with aging between Caucasian and Asian.

Materials and methods: The study included 108 men (aged 20-79 years) and 115 women (aged 20-81 years). Axial CT images with a gantry tilt angle of 0 were analyzed. We measured three-dimensional (3D) coordinates at each point with a pixel lens cursor in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS), and angles and widths between the points were calculated using 3D vector mathematics. We analyzed angular changes in 4 bony regions, including the glabellar, orbital, maxillary, and pyriform aperture regions, and changes in the orbital aperture width (distance from the posterior lacrimal crest to the frontozygomatic suture) and the pyriform width (between both upper margins of the pyriform aperture).

Results: All 4 midfacial angles in females and glabellar and maxillary angles in males showed statistically significant decreases with aging. On the other hand, the orbital and pyriform widths did not show statistically significant changes with aging.

Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that Asian midfacial skeletons may change continuously throughout life, and that there may be significant differences in the midfacial skeleton between both sexes and between ethnic groups.

No MeSH data available.


Three-dimensional (3D) co-ordinates of the sella and nasion in a PACS as the reference line for angular measurement. The 3D co-ordinates of the sella (A) and nasion (B) on axial images were measured using a pixel lens cursor in a PACS report viewer. Each point was verified on reconstructed coronal (C and D) and sagittal images in the PACS report viewer. PACS, picture archiving and communication system.
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Figure 2: Three-dimensional (3D) co-ordinates of the sella and nasion in a PACS as the reference line for angular measurement. The 3D co-ordinates of the sella (A) and nasion (B) on axial images were measured using a pixel lens cursor in a PACS report viewer. Each point was verified on reconstructed coronal (C and D) and sagittal images in the PACS report viewer. PACS, picture archiving and communication system.

Mentions: This study included a total of 223 Asians, all of whom were born and living in South Korea. For the evaluation of angular changes with aging, angular measurements of 4 bony regions (glabellar, orbital, maxillary, and pyriform aperture angles) were made using a method based on 3D vector mathematics. A line from the sella to the nasion was taken as the reference line. Each landmark as described below was identified, and a line was drawn to the reference line. Angular measurements were made as follows: the glabellar angle between the reference line and a line drawn from the maximal prominence the glabella to the nasofrontal suture; the orbital angle between the reference line and a line drawn from the most superior to the most inferior midportion of the orbit; the pyriform angle between the reference line and a line drawn from the nasal bone to the lateral inferior pyriform aperture; and the maxillary angle between the reference line and a line drawn from the most superior to the most inferior maxilla at the articulation of the inferior maxillary wing and alveolar arch. By employing the methods described in Fig. 1, 3D co-ordinates of each point on axial images were measured using a pixel lens cursor in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) report viewer, software version 5.0 (INFINITT Co., Ltd., Seoul, Korea). Each point on an axial image was verified using reconstructed coronal and sagittal images in the PACS report viewer (Fig. 2). From given co-ordinates, the 2 vectors AB and AC were calculated. The dot product of the 2 vectors was defined as AB · AC= /AB/ /AC/ cos θ from geometric definition.10 This equation allows the angle θ, an angle between AB and AC to be precisely computed. The orbital aperture width (distance from the posterior lacrimal crest to the frontozygomatic suture) and the pyriform width (between both lateral margins of the pyriform aperture) were also measured using the PACS.


Analysis of Age-Related Changes in Asian Facial Skeletons Using 3D Vector Mathematics on Picture Archiving and Communication System Computed Tomography.

Kim SJ, Kim SJ, Park JS, Byun SW, Bae JH - Yonsei Med. J. (2015)

Three-dimensional (3D) co-ordinates of the sella and nasion in a PACS as the reference line for angular measurement. The 3D co-ordinates of the sella (A) and nasion (B) on axial images were measured using a pixel lens cursor in a PACS report viewer. Each point was verified on reconstructed coronal (C and D) and sagittal images in the PACS report viewer. PACS, picture archiving and communication system.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4541673&req=5

Figure 2: Three-dimensional (3D) co-ordinates of the sella and nasion in a PACS as the reference line for angular measurement. The 3D co-ordinates of the sella (A) and nasion (B) on axial images were measured using a pixel lens cursor in a PACS report viewer. Each point was verified on reconstructed coronal (C and D) and sagittal images in the PACS report viewer. PACS, picture archiving and communication system.
Mentions: This study included a total of 223 Asians, all of whom were born and living in South Korea. For the evaluation of angular changes with aging, angular measurements of 4 bony regions (glabellar, orbital, maxillary, and pyriform aperture angles) were made using a method based on 3D vector mathematics. A line from the sella to the nasion was taken as the reference line. Each landmark as described below was identified, and a line was drawn to the reference line. Angular measurements were made as follows: the glabellar angle between the reference line and a line drawn from the maximal prominence the glabella to the nasofrontal suture; the orbital angle between the reference line and a line drawn from the most superior to the most inferior midportion of the orbit; the pyriform angle between the reference line and a line drawn from the nasal bone to the lateral inferior pyriform aperture; and the maxillary angle between the reference line and a line drawn from the most superior to the most inferior maxilla at the articulation of the inferior maxillary wing and alveolar arch. By employing the methods described in Fig. 1, 3D co-ordinates of each point on axial images were measured using a pixel lens cursor in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) report viewer, software version 5.0 (INFINITT Co., Ltd., Seoul, Korea). Each point on an axial image was verified using reconstructed coronal and sagittal images in the PACS report viewer (Fig. 2). From given co-ordinates, the 2 vectors AB and AC were calculated. The dot product of the 2 vectors was defined as AB · AC= /AB/ /AC/ cos θ from geometric definition.10 This equation allows the angle θ, an angle between AB and AC to be precisely computed. The orbital aperture width (distance from the posterior lacrimal crest to the frontozygomatic suture) and the pyriform width (between both lateral margins of the pyriform aperture) were also measured using the PACS.

Bottom Line: All 4 midfacial angles in females and glabellar and maxillary angles in males showed statistically significant decreases with aging.On the other hand, the orbital and pyriform widths did not show statistically significant changes with aging.The results of this study suggest that Asian midfacial skeletons may change continuously throughout life, and that there may be significant differences in the midfacial skeleton between both sexes and between ethnic groups.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Ewha Womans University, School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: There are marked differences in facial skeletal characteristics between Asian and Caucasian. However, ethnic differences in age-related facial skeletal changes have not yet been fully established. The aims of this study were to evaluate age-related changes in Asian midfacial skeletons and to explore ethnic differences in facial skeletal structures with aging between Caucasian and Asian.

Materials and methods: The study included 108 men (aged 20-79 years) and 115 women (aged 20-81 years). Axial CT images with a gantry tilt angle of 0 were analyzed. We measured three-dimensional (3D) coordinates at each point with a pixel lens cursor in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS), and angles and widths between the points were calculated using 3D vector mathematics. We analyzed angular changes in 4 bony regions, including the glabellar, orbital, maxillary, and pyriform aperture regions, and changes in the orbital aperture width (distance from the posterior lacrimal crest to the frontozygomatic suture) and the pyriform width (between both upper margins of the pyriform aperture).

Results: All 4 midfacial angles in females and glabellar and maxillary angles in males showed statistically significant decreases with aging. On the other hand, the orbital and pyriform widths did not show statistically significant changes with aging.

Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that Asian midfacial skeletons may change continuously throughout life, and that there may be significant differences in the midfacial skeleton between both sexes and between ethnic groups.

No MeSH data available.