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Phytoplasma infection in tomato is associated with re-organization of plasma membrane, ER stacks, and actin filaments in sieve elements.

Buxa SV, Degola F, Polizzotto R, De Marco F, Loschi A, Kogel KH, di Toppi LS, van Bel AJ, Musetti R - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: We investigated modifications of the sieve-element ultrastructure induced in tomato plants by 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani,' the pathogen associated with the stolbur disease.Western blot analysis revealed a decrease of actin and an increase of ER-resident chaperone luminal binding protein (BiP) in midribs of phytoplasma-infected plants.Collectively, the studies provided novel insights into ultrastructural responses of host sieve elements to phloem-restricted prokaryotes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Phytopathology and Applied Zoology, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Phytoplasmas, biotrophic wall-less prokaryotes, only reside in sieve elements of their host plants. The essentials of the intimate interaction between phytoplasmas and their hosts are poorly understood, which calls for research on potential ultrastructural modifications. We investigated modifications of the sieve-element ultrastructure induced in tomato plants by 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani,' the pathogen associated with the stolbur disease. Phytoplasma infection induces a drastic re-organization of sieve-element substructures including changes in plasma membrane surface and distortion of the sieve-element reticulum. Observations of healthy and stolbur-diseased plants provided evidence for the emergence of structural links between sieve-element plasma membrane and phytoplasmas. One-sided actin aggregates on the phytoplasma surface also inferred a connection between phytoplasma and sieve-element cytoskeleton. Actin filaments displaced from the sieve-element mictoplasm to the surface of the phytoplasmas in infected sieve elements. Western blot analysis revealed a decrease of actin and an increase of ER-resident chaperone luminal binding protein (BiP) in midribs of phytoplasma-infected plants. Collectively, the studies provided novel insights into ultrastructural responses of host sieve elements to phloem-restricted prokaryotes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A–D) Images of healthy (left half of the panels) and stolbur-infected (right half) tomato Micro-Tom plants. Healthy tomato plants show regular growth, normal leaves and flowers are present, whereas in stolbur-infected plants diffuse symptoms are visible (A). Leaf blades are severely reduced (B). Buds are aborted; flowers are malformed with green petals (C). Shoots develop witches’ brooms and show a stunted habit (D).
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Figure 1: (A–D) Images of healthy (left half of the panels) and stolbur-infected (right half) tomato Micro-Tom plants. Healthy tomato plants show regular growth, normal leaves and flowers are present, whereas in stolbur-infected plants diffuse symptoms are visible (A). Leaf blades are severely reduced (B). Buds are aborted; flowers are malformed with green petals (C). Shoots develop witches’ brooms and show a stunted habit (D).

Mentions: Control plants were regularly grown, without disease symptoms. In stolbur-infected plants, typical symptoms, such as leaf yellowing, leaf-size reduction, witches’ brooms and stunting, emerged nearly 2 months after grafting (Figure 1). Real time RT-PCR of ‘Ca. P. solani’ 16SrRNA confirmed the presence of phytoplasmas in leaf samples from stolbur-infected S. lycopersicum before treatment for microscopic examination. Starting from 40 ng of total cDNA, stolbur phytoplasma 16SrRNA was amplified in infected plants, whereas no amplification of the 16SrRNA gene was obtained in control plants (Table 1).


Phytoplasma infection in tomato is associated with re-organization of plasma membrane, ER stacks, and actin filaments in sieve elements.

Buxa SV, Degola F, Polizzotto R, De Marco F, Loschi A, Kogel KH, di Toppi LS, van Bel AJ, Musetti R - Front Plant Sci (2015)

(A–D) Images of healthy (left half of the panels) and stolbur-infected (right half) tomato Micro-Tom plants. Healthy tomato plants show regular growth, normal leaves and flowers are present, whereas in stolbur-infected plants diffuse symptoms are visible (A). Leaf blades are severely reduced (B). Buds are aborted; flowers are malformed with green petals (C). Shoots develop witches’ brooms and show a stunted habit (D).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4541602&req=5

Figure 1: (A–D) Images of healthy (left half of the panels) and stolbur-infected (right half) tomato Micro-Tom plants. Healthy tomato plants show regular growth, normal leaves and flowers are present, whereas in stolbur-infected plants diffuse symptoms are visible (A). Leaf blades are severely reduced (B). Buds are aborted; flowers are malformed with green petals (C). Shoots develop witches’ brooms and show a stunted habit (D).
Mentions: Control plants were regularly grown, without disease symptoms. In stolbur-infected plants, typical symptoms, such as leaf yellowing, leaf-size reduction, witches’ brooms and stunting, emerged nearly 2 months after grafting (Figure 1). Real time RT-PCR of ‘Ca. P. solani’ 16SrRNA confirmed the presence of phytoplasmas in leaf samples from stolbur-infected S. lycopersicum before treatment for microscopic examination. Starting from 40 ng of total cDNA, stolbur phytoplasma 16SrRNA was amplified in infected plants, whereas no amplification of the 16SrRNA gene was obtained in control plants (Table 1).

Bottom Line: We investigated modifications of the sieve-element ultrastructure induced in tomato plants by 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani,' the pathogen associated with the stolbur disease.Western blot analysis revealed a decrease of actin and an increase of ER-resident chaperone luminal binding protein (BiP) in midribs of phytoplasma-infected plants.Collectively, the studies provided novel insights into ultrastructural responses of host sieve elements to phloem-restricted prokaryotes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Phytopathology and Applied Zoology, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Phytoplasmas, biotrophic wall-less prokaryotes, only reside in sieve elements of their host plants. The essentials of the intimate interaction between phytoplasmas and their hosts are poorly understood, which calls for research on potential ultrastructural modifications. We investigated modifications of the sieve-element ultrastructure induced in tomato plants by 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani,' the pathogen associated with the stolbur disease. Phytoplasma infection induces a drastic re-organization of sieve-element substructures including changes in plasma membrane surface and distortion of the sieve-element reticulum. Observations of healthy and stolbur-diseased plants provided evidence for the emergence of structural links between sieve-element plasma membrane and phytoplasmas. One-sided actin aggregates on the phytoplasma surface also inferred a connection between phytoplasma and sieve-element cytoskeleton. Actin filaments displaced from the sieve-element mictoplasm to the surface of the phytoplasmas in infected sieve elements. Western blot analysis revealed a decrease of actin and an increase of ER-resident chaperone luminal binding protein (BiP) in midribs of phytoplasma-infected plants. Collectively, the studies provided novel insights into ultrastructural responses of host sieve elements to phloem-restricted prokaryotes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus