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Learning strategies and general cognitive ability as predictors of gender- specific academic achievement.

Ruffing S, Wach FS, Spinath FM, Brünken R, Karbach J - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: Recent research has revealed that learning behavior is associated with academic achievement at the college level, but the impact of specific learning strategies on academic success as well as gender differences therein are still not clear.Gender differences were found in the reported application of many learning strategies.The incremental assessment of learning strategy use as well as gender-differences in their predictive value contributes to the understanding and improvement of successful academic development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Saarland University, Saarbruecken Germany ; Department of Education, Saarland University, Saarbruecken Germany.

ABSTRACT
Recent research has revealed that learning behavior is associated with academic achievement at the college level, but the impact of specific learning strategies on academic success as well as gender differences therein are still not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the incremental contribution of learning strategies over general cognitive ability in the prediction of academic achievement. The relationship between these variables was examined by correlation analyses. A set of t-tests was used to test for gender differences in learning strategies, whereas structural equation modeling as well as multi-group analyses were applied to investigate the incremental contribution of learning strategies for male and female students' academic performance. The sample consisted of 461 students (mean age = 21.2 years, SD = 3.2). Correlation analyses revealed that general cognitive ability as well as the learning strategies effort, attention, and learning environment were positively correlated with academic achievement. Gender differences were found in the reported application of many learning strategies. Importantly, the prediction of achievement in structural equation modeling revealed that only effort explained incremental variance (10%) over general cognitive ability. Results of multi-group analyses showed no gender differences in this prediction model. This finding provides further knowledge regarding gender differences in learning research and the specific role of learning strategies for academic achievement. The incremental assessment of learning strategy use as well as gender-differences in their predictive value contributes to the understanding and improvement of successful academic development.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Latent variable model for the prediction of male academic achievement. Parcel 1–4: two-item parcels for each factor. Grade1 = grade for the exam on “teaching and learning,” Grade2 = grade for the exam on “personality development and education”. e1–e17: error terms of the parcels and grades. Paths from learning environment and attention to AP have been fixed to zero.
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Figure 3: Latent variable model for the prediction of male academic achievement. Parcel 1–4: two-item parcels for each factor. Grade1 = grade for the exam on “teaching and learning,” Grade2 = grade for the exam on “personality development and education”. e1–e17: error terms of the parcels and grades. Paths from learning environment and attention to AP have been fixed to zero.

Mentions: In a final step, we used multi-group analysis to investigate gender differences in the prediction of academic success. We examined invariance in different parameters of the measurement and structural model of female (Figure 2) and male (Figure 3) AP. We tested for gender differences through gender-specific differences in significance or a significant decline in model fit due to the restriction of parameters. This decline in model fit was identified by chi-square difference statistic, whereby a non-significant result indicated invariance in tested parameters.


Learning strategies and general cognitive ability as predictors of gender- specific academic achievement.

Ruffing S, Wach FS, Spinath FM, Brünken R, Karbach J - Front Psychol (2015)

Latent variable model for the prediction of male academic achievement. Parcel 1–4: two-item parcels for each factor. Grade1 = grade for the exam on “teaching and learning,” Grade2 = grade for the exam on “personality development and education”. e1–e17: error terms of the parcels and grades. Paths from learning environment and attention to AP have been fixed to zero.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4541601&req=5

Figure 3: Latent variable model for the prediction of male academic achievement. Parcel 1–4: two-item parcels for each factor. Grade1 = grade for the exam on “teaching and learning,” Grade2 = grade for the exam on “personality development and education”. e1–e17: error terms of the parcels and grades. Paths from learning environment and attention to AP have been fixed to zero.
Mentions: In a final step, we used multi-group analysis to investigate gender differences in the prediction of academic success. We examined invariance in different parameters of the measurement and structural model of female (Figure 2) and male (Figure 3) AP. We tested for gender differences through gender-specific differences in significance or a significant decline in model fit due to the restriction of parameters. This decline in model fit was identified by chi-square difference statistic, whereby a non-significant result indicated invariance in tested parameters.

Bottom Line: Recent research has revealed that learning behavior is associated with academic achievement at the college level, but the impact of specific learning strategies on academic success as well as gender differences therein are still not clear.Gender differences were found in the reported application of many learning strategies.The incremental assessment of learning strategy use as well as gender-differences in their predictive value contributes to the understanding and improvement of successful academic development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Saarland University, Saarbruecken Germany ; Department of Education, Saarland University, Saarbruecken Germany.

ABSTRACT
Recent research has revealed that learning behavior is associated with academic achievement at the college level, but the impact of specific learning strategies on academic success as well as gender differences therein are still not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the incremental contribution of learning strategies over general cognitive ability in the prediction of academic achievement. The relationship between these variables was examined by correlation analyses. A set of t-tests was used to test for gender differences in learning strategies, whereas structural equation modeling as well as multi-group analyses were applied to investigate the incremental contribution of learning strategies for male and female students' academic performance. The sample consisted of 461 students (mean age = 21.2 years, SD = 3.2). Correlation analyses revealed that general cognitive ability as well as the learning strategies effort, attention, and learning environment were positively correlated with academic achievement. Gender differences were found in the reported application of many learning strategies. Importantly, the prediction of achievement in structural equation modeling revealed that only effort explained incremental variance (10%) over general cognitive ability. Results of multi-group analyses showed no gender differences in this prediction model. This finding provides further knowledge regarding gender differences in learning research and the specific role of learning strategies for academic achievement. The incremental assessment of learning strategy use as well as gender-differences in their predictive value contributes to the understanding and improvement of successful academic development.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus