Limits...
Learning strategies and general cognitive ability as predictors of gender- specific academic achievement.

Ruffing S, Wach FS, Spinath FM, Brünken R, Karbach J - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: Recent research has revealed that learning behavior is associated with academic achievement at the college level, but the impact of specific learning strategies on academic success as well as gender differences therein are still not clear.Gender differences were found in the reported application of many learning strategies.The incremental assessment of learning strategy use as well as gender-differences in their predictive value contributes to the understanding and improvement of successful academic development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Saarland University, Saarbruecken Germany ; Department of Education, Saarland University, Saarbruecken Germany.

ABSTRACT
Recent research has revealed that learning behavior is associated with academic achievement at the college level, but the impact of specific learning strategies on academic success as well as gender differences therein are still not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the incremental contribution of learning strategies over general cognitive ability in the prediction of academic achievement. The relationship between these variables was examined by correlation analyses. A set of t-tests was used to test for gender differences in learning strategies, whereas structural equation modeling as well as multi-group analyses were applied to investigate the incremental contribution of learning strategies for male and female students' academic performance. The sample consisted of 461 students (mean age = 21.2 years, SD = 3.2). Correlation analyses revealed that general cognitive ability as well as the learning strategies effort, attention, and learning environment were positively correlated with academic achievement. Gender differences were found in the reported application of many learning strategies. Importantly, the prediction of achievement in structural equation modeling revealed that only effort explained incremental variance (10%) over general cognitive ability. Results of multi-group analyses showed no gender differences in this prediction model. This finding provides further knowledge regarding gender differences in learning research and the specific role of learning strategies for academic achievement. The incremental assessment of learning strategy use as well as gender-differences in their predictive value contributes to the understanding and improvement of successful academic development.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Latent variable model for the structural model. Grade1 = grade for the exam on “teaching and learning”, Grade2 = grade for the exam on “personality development and education.” Parcel 1–4: two-item parcels for each factor. e1–e17: error terms of the parcels and grades. Dashed lines indicate paths with insignificant coefficients.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4541601&req=5

Figure 1: Latent variable model for the structural model. Grade1 = grade for the exam on “teaching and learning”, Grade2 = grade for the exam on “personality development and education.” Parcel 1–4: two-item parcels for each factor. e1–e17: error terms of the parcels and grades. Dashed lines indicate paths with insignificant coefficients.

Mentions: In order to test the predictive validity of learning strategies over general cognitive ability for academic success in university students, we then conducted structural equation modeling (SEM). Applying this latent variable approach allowed us to consider complex relationships between our set of variables with the advantage of controlling measurement errors as well as examining intercorrelations between variables simultaneously (Geiser, 2010). Specifically, we investigated the unique contribution of the non-cognitive variable learning strategies to AP while controlling for the influence and any intercorrelation with general cognitive ability. Therefore, we specified a recursive model including four independent variables (general cognitive ability and the three learning strategies that were significantly correlated with AP, namely effort, attention, and learning environment), and the dependent variable (academic success; see Figure 1). Correlations between latent predictors were also allowed if their correlations reached significance on the manifest level. In this full or free model, we applied no restrictions and all paths were freely estimated. We subsequently fixed non-significant parameters to zero to specify a nested more parsimonious model. We used a chi-square difference test statistic to test if this model fitted the data equally well.


Learning strategies and general cognitive ability as predictors of gender- specific academic achievement.

Ruffing S, Wach FS, Spinath FM, Brünken R, Karbach J - Front Psychol (2015)

Latent variable model for the structural model. Grade1 = grade for the exam on “teaching and learning”, Grade2 = grade for the exam on “personality development and education.” Parcel 1–4: two-item parcels for each factor. e1–e17: error terms of the parcels and grades. Dashed lines indicate paths with insignificant coefficients.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4541601&req=5

Figure 1: Latent variable model for the structural model. Grade1 = grade for the exam on “teaching and learning”, Grade2 = grade for the exam on “personality development and education.” Parcel 1–4: two-item parcels for each factor. e1–e17: error terms of the parcels and grades. Dashed lines indicate paths with insignificant coefficients.
Mentions: In order to test the predictive validity of learning strategies over general cognitive ability for academic success in university students, we then conducted structural equation modeling (SEM). Applying this latent variable approach allowed us to consider complex relationships between our set of variables with the advantage of controlling measurement errors as well as examining intercorrelations between variables simultaneously (Geiser, 2010). Specifically, we investigated the unique contribution of the non-cognitive variable learning strategies to AP while controlling for the influence and any intercorrelation with general cognitive ability. Therefore, we specified a recursive model including four independent variables (general cognitive ability and the three learning strategies that were significantly correlated with AP, namely effort, attention, and learning environment), and the dependent variable (academic success; see Figure 1). Correlations between latent predictors were also allowed if their correlations reached significance on the manifest level. In this full or free model, we applied no restrictions and all paths were freely estimated. We subsequently fixed non-significant parameters to zero to specify a nested more parsimonious model. We used a chi-square difference test statistic to test if this model fitted the data equally well.

Bottom Line: Recent research has revealed that learning behavior is associated with academic achievement at the college level, but the impact of specific learning strategies on academic success as well as gender differences therein are still not clear.Gender differences were found in the reported application of many learning strategies.The incremental assessment of learning strategy use as well as gender-differences in their predictive value contributes to the understanding and improvement of successful academic development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Saarland University, Saarbruecken Germany ; Department of Education, Saarland University, Saarbruecken Germany.

ABSTRACT
Recent research has revealed that learning behavior is associated with academic achievement at the college level, but the impact of specific learning strategies on academic success as well as gender differences therein are still not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the incremental contribution of learning strategies over general cognitive ability in the prediction of academic achievement. The relationship between these variables was examined by correlation analyses. A set of t-tests was used to test for gender differences in learning strategies, whereas structural equation modeling as well as multi-group analyses were applied to investigate the incremental contribution of learning strategies for male and female students' academic performance. The sample consisted of 461 students (mean age = 21.2 years, SD = 3.2). Correlation analyses revealed that general cognitive ability as well as the learning strategies effort, attention, and learning environment were positively correlated with academic achievement. Gender differences were found in the reported application of many learning strategies. Importantly, the prediction of achievement in structural equation modeling revealed that only effort explained incremental variance (10%) over general cognitive ability. Results of multi-group analyses showed no gender differences in this prediction model. This finding provides further knowledge regarding gender differences in learning research and the specific role of learning strategies for academic achievement. The incremental assessment of learning strategy use as well as gender-differences in their predictive value contributes to the understanding and improvement of successful academic development.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus