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Orthorexia nervosa: An integrative literature review of a lifestyle syndrome.

Håman L, Barker-Ruchti N, Patriksson G, Lindgren EC - Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being (2015)

Bottom Line: Consequently, the concept of healthism was used to discuss and contextualize orthorexia.This review demonstrates a multifaceted nature of orthorexia research; this field has been examined from four different philosophies of science approaches (i.e., empirical-atomistic, empirical-atomistic with elements of empirical-holistic, empirical-holistic, and rational-holistic) on individual, social, and societal levels.The majority of the articles followed an empirical-atomistic approach that focused on orthorexia as an individual issue, which was discussed using healthism.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Food and Nutrition and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

ABSTRACT
Bratman first proposed orthorexia nervosa in the late 1990s, defining it an obsession with eating healthy food to achieve, for instance, improved health. Today, in the Swedish media, excessive exercising plays a central role in relation to orthorexia. A few review articles on orthorexia have been conducted; however, these have not focused on aspects of food and eating, sport, exercise, or a societal perspective. The overall aim of this study was to provide an overview and synthesis of what philosophies of science approaches form the current academic framework of orthorexia. Key questions were: What aspects of food and eating are related to orthorexia? What role do exercise and sports play in relation to orthorexia? In what ways are orthorexia contextualized? Consequently, the concept of healthism was used to discuss and contextualize orthorexia. The method used was an integrative literature review; the material covered 19 empirical and theoretical articles published in peer-reviewed journals. This review demonstrates a multifaceted nature of orthorexia research; this field has been examined from four different philosophies of science approaches (i.e., empirical-atomistic, empirical-atomistic with elements of empirical-holistic, empirical-holistic, and rational-holistic) on individual, social, and societal levels. The majority of the articles followed an empirical-atomistic approach that focused on orthorexia as an individual issue, which was discussed using healthism. Our analysis indicates a need for (a) more empirical-holistic research that applies interpretive qualitative methods and uses a social perspective of health, e.g., healthism and (b) examining the role of sports and exercise in relation to orthorexia that takes the problematizing of "orthorexic behaviours" within the sports context into account.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

A model that synthesizes the categories that have been examined in relation to orthorexia, sorted by philosophy of science approaches at an individual, social, and societal level.
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Figure 0003: A model that synthesizes the categories that have been examined in relation to orthorexia, sorted by philosophy of science approaches at an individual, social, and societal level.

Mentions: The multifaceted nature of the research demonstrates that orthorexia has been researched on individual, social, and societal levels using four different approaches (Figure 3). Even so, most of the articles corresponded to an individual level from an empirical-atomistic approach that focused on orthorexia as an individual issue. Sorting and synthesizing the research according to these different levels illustrate that individuals are influenced by multiple factors and systems on varying levels. Thus, the environment that surrounds individuals should be regarded as a series of nested levels; each outer level is inclusive of the inner ones (cf. levels within social-ecological model; Stokols, 1996). The first inner circle is called the individual level and covers the aspects that immediately influence the individual, such as the individual's behaviours, biology, and psychological and medical conditions. The next circle refers to the social level, which involves contextual and cultural spheres that influence the individual and in which the individual takes part. The third circle, the societal level, refers to wider sociocultural contexts in which individuals live, including societies and dominating contemporary health perspectives (cf. Stokols, 1996). Because it is not possible to present a clear picture of the findings, it is important to emphasize that the categories that are presented within the model are aspects that have been examined. Indeed, there is not necessarily consensus regarding how these aspects relate to orthorexia.


Orthorexia nervosa: An integrative literature review of a lifestyle syndrome.

Håman L, Barker-Ruchti N, Patriksson G, Lindgren EC - Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being (2015)

A model that synthesizes the categories that have been examined in relation to orthorexia, sorted by philosophy of science approaches at an individual, social, and societal level.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4539385&req=5

Figure 0003: A model that synthesizes the categories that have been examined in relation to orthorexia, sorted by philosophy of science approaches at an individual, social, and societal level.
Mentions: The multifaceted nature of the research demonstrates that orthorexia has been researched on individual, social, and societal levels using four different approaches (Figure 3). Even so, most of the articles corresponded to an individual level from an empirical-atomistic approach that focused on orthorexia as an individual issue. Sorting and synthesizing the research according to these different levels illustrate that individuals are influenced by multiple factors and systems on varying levels. Thus, the environment that surrounds individuals should be regarded as a series of nested levels; each outer level is inclusive of the inner ones (cf. levels within social-ecological model; Stokols, 1996). The first inner circle is called the individual level and covers the aspects that immediately influence the individual, such as the individual's behaviours, biology, and psychological and medical conditions. The next circle refers to the social level, which involves contextual and cultural spheres that influence the individual and in which the individual takes part. The third circle, the societal level, refers to wider sociocultural contexts in which individuals live, including societies and dominating contemporary health perspectives (cf. Stokols, 1996). Because it is not possible to present a clear picture of the findings, it is important to emphasize that the categories that are presented within the model are aspects that have been examined. Indeed, there is not necessarily consensus regarding how these aspects relate to orthorexia.

Bottom Line: Consequently, the concept of healthism was used to discuss and contextualize orthorexia.This review demonstrates a multifaceted nature of orthorexia research; this field has been examined from four different philosophies of science approaches (i.e., empirical-atomistic, empirical-atomistic with elements of empirical-holistic, empirical-holistic, and rational-holistic) on individual, social, and societal levels.The majority of the articles followed an empirical-atomistic approach that focused on orthorexia as an individual issue, which was discussed using healthism.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Food and Nutrition and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

ABSTRACT
Bratman first proposed orthorexia nervosa in the late 1990s, defining it an obsession with eating healthy food to achieve, for instance, improved health. Today, in the Swedish media, excessive exercising plays a central role in relation to orthorexia. A few review articles on orthorexia have been conducted; however, these have not focused on aspects of food and eating, sport, exercise, or a societal perspective. The overall aim of this study was to provide an overview and synthesis of what philosophies of science approaches form the current academic framework of orthorexia. Key questions were: What aspects of food and eating are related to orthorexia? What role do exercise and sports play in relation to orthorexia? In what ways are orthorexia contextualized? Consequently, the concept of healthism was used to discuss and contextualize orthorexia. The method used was an integrative literature review; the material covered 19 empirical and theoretical articles published in peer-reviewed journals. This review demonstrates a multifaceted nature of orthorexia research; this field has been examined from four different philosophies of science approaches (i.e., empirical-atomistic, empirical-atomistic with elements of empirical-holistic, empirical-holistic, and rational-holistic) on individual, social, and societal levels. The majority of the articles followed an empirical-atomistic approach that focused on orthorexia as an individual issue, which was discussed using healthism. Our analysis indicates a need for (a) more empirical-holistic research that applies interpretive qualitative methods and uses a social perspective of health, e.g., healthism and (b) examining the role of sports and exercise in relation to orthorexia that takes the problematizing of "orthorexic behaviours" within the sports context into account.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus