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Orthorexia nervosa: An integrative literature review of a lifestyle syndrome.

Håman L, Barker-Ruchti N, Patriksson G, Lindgren EC - Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being (2015)

Bottom Line: Consequently, the concept of healthism was used to discuss and contextualize orthorexia.This review demonstrates a multifaceted nature of orthorexia research; this field has been examined from four different philosophies of science approaches (i.e., empirical-atomistic, empirical-atomistic with elements of empirical-holistic, empirical-holistic, and rational-holistic) on individual, social, and societal levels.The majority of the articles followed an empirical-atomistic approach that focused on orthorexia as an individual issue, which was discussed using healthism.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Food and Nutrition and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

ABSTRACT
Bratman first proposed orthorexia nervosa in the late 1990s, defining it an obsession with eating healthy food to achieve, for instance, improved health. Today, in the Swedish media, excessive exercising plays a central role in relation to orthorexia. A few review articles on orthorexia have been conducted; however, these have not focused on aspects of food and eating, sport, exercise, or a societal perspective. The overall aim of this study was to provide an overview and synthesis of what philosophies of science approaches form the current academic framework of orthorexia. Key questions were: What aspects of food and eating are related to orthorexia? What role do exercise and sports play in relation to orthorexia? In what ways are orthorexia contextualized? Consequently, the concept of healthism was used to discuss and contextualize orthorexia. The method used was an integrative literature review; the material covered 19 empirical and theoretical articles published in peer-reviewed journals. This review demonstrates a multifaceted nature of orthorexia research; this field has been examined from four different philosophies of science approaches (i.e., empirical-atomistic, empirical-atomistic with elements of empirical-holistic, empirical-holistic, and rational-holistic) on individual, social, and societal levels. The majority of the articles followed an empirical-atomistic approach that focused on orthorexia as an individual issue, which was discussed using healthism. Our analysis indicates a need for (a) more empirical-holistic research that applies interpretive qualitative methods and uses a social perspective of health, e.g., healthism and (b) examining the role of sports and exercise in relation to orthorexia that takes the problematizing of "orthorexic behaviours" within the sports context into account.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Philosophy of science world map (Gunnarsson, 2014). Reproduced with permission from Gunnarsson.
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Figure 0002: Philosophy of science world map (Gunnarsson, 2014). Reproduced with permission from Gunnarsson.

Mentions: The articles were initially read to obtain an overall picture of their content. Next, the articles’ contents were compiled into a table including author and year of publication; objectives, participants, and design; and type of orthorexia examined (see Table I1 for an overview of the included research articles presented according to design in alphabetical order by author). A summary of the findings was also written. This documentation revealed a disparate picture among objectives, participants, type of orthorexia examined, and findings. The philosophy upon which a study's scientific assumptions are based affects how orthorexia is researched because the philosophy shapes the research aims, research questions, data collection or production methods, and analytic procedures (Gunnarsson, 2014). In order to identify and sort which scientific approaches the articles had adopted, Gunnarsson's (2014) philosophy of science world map was used (Figure 2). Gunnarsson's (2014) map contains four different approaches: empirical-atomistic, empirical-holistic, rational-holistic, and rational-atomistic. This map allows scholars to understand the different approaches without getting distracted by too many details. The articles were sorted based on Gunnarsson's (2014) map in the following steps: (a) each article's objectives, the type of orthorexia examined, and the findings were compared with the four different approaches outlined in Figure 2; and (b) the articles were sorted along the different approaches outlined by Gunnarsson's (2014) map.


Orthorexia nervosa: An integrative literature review of a lifestyle syndrome.

Håman L, Barker-Ruchti N, Patriksson G, Lindgren EC - Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being (2015)

Philosophy of science world map (Gunnarsson, 2014). Reproduced with permission from Gunnarsson.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4539385&req=5

Figure 0002: Philosophy of science world map (Gunnarsson, 2014). Reproduced with permission from Gunnarsson.
Mentions: The articles were initially read to obtain an overall picture of their content. Next, the articles’ contents were compiled into a table including author and year of publication; objectives, participants, and design; and type of orthorexia examined (see Table I1 for an overview of the included research articles presented according to design in alphabetical order by author). A summary of the findings was also written. This documentation revealed a disparate picture among objectives, participants, type of orthorexia examined, and findings. The philosophy upon which a study's scientific assumptions are based affects how orthorexia is researched because the philosophy shapes the research aims, research questions, data collection or production methods, and analytic procedures (Gunnarsson, 2014). In order to identify and sort which scientific approaches the articles had adopted, Gunnarsson's (2014) philosophy of science world map was used (Figure 2). Gunnarsson's (2014) map contains four different approaches: empirical-atomistic, empirical-holistic, rational-holistic, and rational-atomistic. This map allows scholars to understand the different approaches without getting distracted by too many details. The articles were sorted based on Gunnarsson's (2014) map in the following steps: (a) each article's objectives, the type of orthorexia examined, and the findings were compared with the four different approaches outlined in Figure 2; and (b) the articles were sorted along the different approaches outlined by Gunnarsson's (2014) map.

Bottom Line: Consequently, the concept of healthism was used to discuss and contextualize orthorexia.This review demonstrates a multifaceted nature of orthorexia research; this field has been examined from four different philosophies of science approaches (i.e., empirical-atomistic, empirical-atomistic with elements of empirical-holistic, empirical-holistic, and rational-holistic) on individual, social, and societal levels.The majority of the articles followed an empirical-atomistic approach that focused on orthorexia as an individual issue, which was discussed using healthism.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Food and Nutrition and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

ABSTRACT
Bratman first proposed orthorexia nervosa in the late 1990s, defining it an obsession with eating healthy food to achieve, for instance, improved health. Today, in the Swedish media, excessive exercising plays a central role in relation to orthorexia. A few review articles on orthorexia have been conducted; however, these have not focused on aspects of food and eating, sport, exercise, or a societal perspective. The overall aim of this study was to provide an overview and synthesis of what philosophies of science approaches form the current academic framework of orthorexia. Key questions were: What aspects of food and eating are related to orthorexia? What role do exercise and sports play in relation to orthorexia? In what ways are orthorexia contextualized? Consequently, the concept of healthism was used to discuss and contextualize orthorexia. The method used was an integrative literature review; the material covered 19 empirical and theoretical articles published in peer-reviewed journals. This review demonstrates a multifaceted nature of orthorexia research; this field has been examined from four different philosophies of science approaches (i.e., empirical-atomistic, empirical-atomistic with elements of empirical-holistic, empirical-holistic, and rational-holistic) on individual, social, and societal levels. The majority of the articles followed an empirical-atomistic approach that focused on orthorexia as an individual issue, which was discussed using healthism. Our analysis indicates a need for (a) more empirical-holistic research that applies interpretive qualitative methods and uses a social perspective of health, e.g., healthism and (b) examining the role of sports and exercise in relation to orthorexia that takes the problematizing of "orthorexic behaviours" within the sports context into account.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus