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Orthorexia nervosa: An integrative literature review of a lifestyle syndrome.

Håman L, Barker-Ruchti N, Patriksson G, Lindgren EC - Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being (2015)

Bottom Line: Consequently, the concept of healthism was used to discuss and contextualize orthorexia.This review demonstrates a multifaceted nature of orthorexia research; this field has been examined from four different philosophies of science approaches (i.e., empirical-atomistic, empirical-atomistic with elements of empirical-holistic, empirical-holistic, and rational-holistic) on individual, social, and societal levels.The majority of the articles followed an empirical-atomistic approach that focused on orthorexia as an individual issue, which was discussed using healthism.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Food and Nutrition and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

ABSTRACT
Bratman first proposed orthorexia nervosa in the late 1990s, defining it an obsession with eating healthy food to achieve, for instance, improved health. Today, in the Swedish media, excessive exercising plays a central role in relation to orthorexia. A few review articles on orthorexia have been conducted; however, these have not focused on aspects of food and eating, sport, exercise, or a societal perspective. The overall aim of this study was to provide an overview and synthesis of what philosophies of science approaches form the current academic framework of orthorexia. Key questions were: What aspects of food and eating are related to orthorexia? What role do exercise and sports play in relation to orthorexia? In what ways are orthorexia contextualized? Consequently, the concept of healthism was used to discuss and contextualize orthorexia. The method used was an integrative literature review; the material covered 19 empirical and theoretical articles published in peer-reviewed journals. This review demonstrates a multifaceted nature of orthorexia research; this field has been examined from four different philosophies of science approaches (i.e., empirical-atomistic, empirical-atomistic with elements of empirical-holistic, empirical-holistic, and rational-holistic) on individual, social, and societal levels. The majority of the articles followed an empirical-atomistic approach that focused on orthorexia as an individual issue, which was discussed using healthism. Our analysis indicates a need for (a) more empirical-holistic research that applies interpretive qualitative methods and uses a social perspective of health, e.g., healthism and (b) examining the role of sports and exercise in relation to orthorexia that takes the problematizing of "orthorexic behaviours" within the sports context into account.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Flow of information through the different phases of the integrative review (Moher et al., 2009).
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Figure 0001: Flow of information through the different phases of the integrative review (Moher et al., 2009).

Mentions: A sample of international scientific articles has been collected. The inclusion criteria were articles that dealt explicitly with orthorexia, were published in internationally peer-reviewed journals written in English, and included either empirical or theoretical content. The exclusion criteria were articles that exclusively focused on instruments (e.g., construction and/or development). In June 2014, a systematic literature search using the databases Academic Search Elite, PubMed, Science Direct, SPORTDiscus, and Summon was conducted. The keywords used were orthorexia, orthorexia nervosa, and orthorexic society. The PRISMA flow diagram (outlined in Figure 1) has been used to illustrate the identification, screening, eligibility, and inclusion processes (Moher, Liberati, Tetzlaff, Altman, & The PRISMA Group, 2009). In total, 330 articles (including duplicates) published between January 2004 and June 2014 were collected. A manual search was also conducted and one additional article (Nicolosi, 2006) was included from the reference list. The manual search involved checking the reference lists of the collected articles: previous review articles that solely focused on orthorexia (Brytek-Matera, 2012; Chaki, Pal, & Bandyopadhyay, 2013; Varga et al., 2013); review articles that included orthorexia in part, for instance, along with eating disorders (Babicz-Zielińska, Wądołowska, & Tomaszewski, 2013); and behavioural addictions (Marazziti et al., 2014), doctoral theses (McInerney-Ernst, 2011), and master's theses (Shah, 2012). The reference list in one doctoral thesis (Borgida, 2011) was not checked because this document could not be accessed. After this identification process, 237 duplicates were removed. Ninety-four records (titles and abstracts) were screened to determine their adherence to the inclusion criteria and research questions. Seventy-two publications did not fulfil the inclusion criteria or respond to the research questions. The remaining 22 full-length articles were then again assessed for eligibility in light of the inclusion criteria. Three articles were excluded because they did not fit inclusion criteria. Finally, 19 peer-reviewed empirical and theoretical articles (15 empirical articles, 1 theoretical article, and 3 case reports) were included in this integrative review.


Orthorexia nervosa: An integrative literature review of a lifestyle syndrome.

Håman L, Barker-Ruchti N, Patriksson G, Lindgren EC - Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being (2015)

Flow of information through the different phases of the integrative review (Moher et al., 2009).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4539385&req=5

Figure 0001: Flow of information through the different phases of the integrative review (Moher et al., 2009).
Mentions: A sample of international scientific articles has been collected. The inclusion criteria were articles that dealt explicitly with orthorexia, were published in internationally peer-reviewed journals written in English, and included either empirical or theoretical content. The exclusion criteria were articles that exclusively focused on instruments (e.g., construction and/or development). In June 2014, a systematic literature search using the databases Academic Search Elite, PubMed, Science Direct, SPORTDiscus, and Summon was conducted. The keywords used were orthorexia, orthorexia nervosa, and orthorexic society. The PRISMA flow diagram (outlined in Figure 1) has been used to illustrate the identification, screening, eligibility, and inclusion processes (Moher, Liberati, Tetzlaff, Altman, & The PRISMA Group, 2009). In total, 330 articles (including duplicates) published between January 2004 and June 2014 were collected. A manual search was also conducted and one additional article (Nicolosi, 2006) was included from the reference list. The manual search involved checking the reference lists of the collected articles: previous review articles that solely focused on orthorexia (Brytek-Matera, 2012; Chaki, Pal, & Bandyopadhyay, 2013; Varga et al., 2013); review articles that included orthorexia in part, for instance, along with eating disorders (Babicz-Zielińska, Wądołowska, & Tomaszewski, 2013); and behavioural addictions (Marazziti et al., 2014), doctoral theses (McInerney-Ernst, 2011), and master's theses (Shah, 2012). The reference list in one doctoral thesis (Borgida, 2011) was not checked because this document could not be accessed. After this identification process, 237 duplicates were removed. Ninety-four records (titles and abstracts) were screened to determine their adherence to the inclusion criteria and research questions. Seventy-two publications did not fulfil the inclusion criteria or respond to the research questions. The remaining 22 full-length articles were then again assessed for eligibility in light of the inclusion criteria. Three articles were excluded because they did not fit inclusion criteria. Finally, 19 peer-reviewed empirical and theoretical articles (15 empirical articles, 1 theoretical article, and 3 case reports) were included in this integrative review.

Bottom Line: Consequently, the concept of healthism was used to discuss and contextualize orthorexia.This review demonstrates a multifaceted nature of orthorexia research; this field has been examined from four different philosophies of science approaches (i.e., empirical-atomistic, empirical-atomistic with elements of empirical-holistic, empirical-holistic, and rational-holistic) on individual, social, and societal levels.The majority of the articles followed an empirical-atomistic approach that focused on orthorexia as an individual issue, which was discussed using healthism.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Food and Nutrition and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

ABSTRACT
Bratman first proposed orthorexia nervosa in the late 1990s, defining it an obsession with eating healthy food to achieve, for instance, improved health. Today, in the Swedish media, excessive exercising plays a central role in relation to orthorexia. A few review articles on orthorexia have been conducted; however, these have not focused on aspects of food and eating, sport, exercise, or a societal perspective. The overall aim of this study was to provide an overview and synthesis of what philosophies of science approaches form the current academic framework of orthorexia. Key questions were: What aspects of food and eating are related to orthorexia? What role do exercise and sports play in relation to orthorexia? In what ways are orthorexia contextualized? Consequently, the concept of healthism was used to discuss and contextualize orthorexia. The method used was an integrative literature review; the material covered 19 empirical and theoretical articles published in peer-reviewed journals. This review demonstrates a multifaceted nature of orthorexia research; this field has been examined from four different philosophies of science approaches (i.e., empirical-atomistic, empirical-atomistic with elements of empirical-holistic, empirical-holistic, and rational-holistic) on individual, social, and societal levels. The majority of the articles followed an empirical-atomistic approach that focused on orthorexia as an individual issue, which was discussed using healthism. Our analysis indicates a need for (a) more empirical-holistic research that applies interpretive qualitative methods and uses a social perspective of health, e.g., healthism and (b) examining the role of sports and exercise in relation to orthorexia that takes the problematizing of "orthorexic behaviours" within the sports context into account.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus