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Systemic deterrence of aphid probing and feeding by novel β-damascone analogues.

Gabryś B, Dancewicz K, Gliszczyńska A, Kordan B, Wawrzeńczyk C - J Pest Sci (2004) (2014)

Bottom Line: The most effective structural modification that evoked the strongest negative response from M. persicae was the transformation of β-damascone into δ-bromo-γ-lactone.The behavioural effect of this transformation was demonstrated in frequent interruption of probing in peripheral tissues, which caused repeated failures in finding sieve elements, and reduction in the ingestion time during the phloem phase in favour of watery salivation.The inhibition of aphid probing at both the pre-phloem and phloem levels reveals the passage of the compounds studied through the plant surface and their distribution within plant tissues in a systemic way, which may reduce the risk of the transmission of non-persistent and persistent viruses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Botany and Ecology, University of Zielona Góra, Szafrana 1, 65-516 Zielona Góra, Poland.

ABSTRACT

β-Damascone appeared a weak attractant close to not active to Myzus persicae, but modifications of its structure caused the avoidance of treated leaves by aphids during settling and reluctance to probe in simple choice- and no-choice experiments in previous studies. Here, the electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique, which allows monitoring of aphid probing within plant tissues, was applied to explore the biological background and localisation in plant tissues of the deterrent activities of β-damascone and its analogues. Activity of β-damascone and β-damascone-derived compounds depended on their substituents, which was manifested in the variation in the potency of the behavioural effect and differences in aphid probing phases that were affected. β-Damascone appeared a behaviourally inactive compound. The moderately active β-damascone ester affected aphid activities only during the phloem phase. The highly active deterrents-dihydro-β-damascol, β-damascone acetate, δ-bromo-γ-lactone, and unsaturated γ-lactone-affected pre-phloem and phloem aphid probing activities. The most effective structural modification that evoked the strongest negative response from M. persicae was the transformation of β-damascone into δ-bromo-γ-lactone. The behavioural effect of this transformation was demonstrated in frequent interruption of probing in peripheral tissues, which caused repeated failures in finding sieve elements, and reduction in the ingestion time during the phloem phase in favour of watery salivation. The inhibition of aphid probing at both the pre-phloem and phloem levels reveals the passage of the compounds studied through the plant surface and their distribution within plant tissues in a systemic way, which may reduce the risk of the transmission of non-persistent and persistent viruses.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Number and duration of probes preceding the first phloem phase in Myzus persicae exposed to β-damascone (1) and its analogues (2–11). Asterisks indicate significant differences in relation to control (C) at P < 0.01 (*) or P < 0.001 (**) (Mann-Whitney U test)
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Fig2: Number and duration of probes preceding the first phloem phase in Myzus persicae exposed to β-damascone (1) and its analogues (2–11). Asterisks indicate significant differences in relation to control (C) at P < 0.01 (*) or P < 0.001 (**) (Mann-Whitney U test)

Mentions: The typical behaviour of M. persicae on control untreated plants consisted mainly of activities associated with pathway and phloem phases: 36 and 57 % of the experimental time, respectively. Aphids rarely withdrew their stylets from plant tissues (six times during the 8-h EPG recording on average) and the pauses between probes were short, 5 min on average. The individual probes were relatively long (1.2 h average duration) and nearly 60 % of them were successful, i.e. during those probes aphids reached phloem vessels (Table 1). The number of failed probes before finding phloem was relatively low: two, usually short epidermal probes per aphid (Fig. 2), and the total time of non-probing preceding the first contact with phloem vessels was 7 min on average (Table 2). The first probe was relatively long (4.5 h on average) and it typically comprised a sustained sap ingestion period (2.8 h long on average in more than 50 % of aphids) (Tables 1, 2). Nearly 80 % of aphids reached phloem vessels in the second hour after having access to the plants and nearly 90 % of aphids showed sustained ingestion by the end of the experiment (eight phloem phases per aphid on average) (Table 2; Fig. 3). The phloem phase consisted mainly of passive sap ingestion activity; the contribution of E1 salivation to the phloem phase was 6 % (Table 1).Table 1


Systemic deterrence of aphid probing and feeding by novel β-damascone analogues.

Gabryś B, Dancewicz K, Gliszczyńska A, Kordan B, Wawrzeńczyk C - J Pest Sci (2004) (2014)

Number and duration of probes preceding the first phloem phase in Myzus persicae exposed to β-damascone (1) and its analogues (2–11). Asterisks indicate significant differences in relation to control (C) at P < 0.01 (*) or P < 0.001 (**) (Mann-Whitney U test)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4539356&req=5

Fig2: Number and duration of probes preceding the first phloem phase in Myzus persicae exposed to β-damascone (1) and its analogues (2–11). Asterisks indicate significant differences in relation to control (C) at P < 0.01 (*) or P < 0.001 (**) (Mann-Whitney U test)
Mentions: The typical behaviour of M. persicae on control untreated plants consisted mainly of activities associated with pathway and phloem phases: 36 and 57 % of the experimental time, respectively. Aphids rarely withdrew their stylets from plant tissues (six times during the 8-h EPG recording on average) and the pauses between probes were short, 5 min on average. The individual probes were relatively long (1.2 h average duration) and nearly 60 % of them were successful, i.e. during those probes aphids reached phloem vessels (Table 1). The number of failed probes before finding phloem was relatively low: two, usually short epidermal probes per aphid (Fig. 2), and the total time of non-probing preceding the first contact with phloem vessels was 7 min on average (Table 2). The first probe was relatively long (4.5 h on average) and it typically comprised a sustained sap ingestion period (2.8 h long on average in more than 50 % of aphids) (Tables 1, 2). Nearly 80 % of aphids reached phloem vessels in the second hour after having access to the plants and nearly 90 % of aphids showed sustained ingestion by the end of the experiment (eight phloem phases per aphid on average) (Table 2; Fig. 3). The phloem phase consisted mainly of passive sap ingestion activity; the contribution of E1 salivation to the phloem phase was 6 % (Table 1).Table 1

Bottom Line: The most effective structural modification that evoked the strongest negative response from M. persicae was the transformation of β-damascone into δ-bromo-γ-lactone.The behavioural effect of this transformation was demonstrated in frequent interruption of probing in peripheral tissues, which caused repeated failures in finding sieve elements, and reduction in the ingestion time during the phloem phase in favour of watery salivation.The inhibition of aphid probing at both the pre-phloem and phloem levels reveals the passage of the compounds studied through the plant surface and their distribution within plant tissues in a systemic way, which may reduce the risk of the transmission of non-persistent and persistent viruses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Botany and Ecology, University of Zielona Góra, Szafrana 1, 65-516 Zielona Góra, Poland.

ABSTRACT

β-Damascone appeared a weak attractant close to not active to Myzus persicae, but modifications of its structure caused the avoidance of treated leaves by aphids during settling and reluctance to probe in simple choice- and no-choice experiments in previous studies. Here, the electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique, which allows monitoring of aphid probing within plant tissues, was applied to explore the biological background and localisation in plant tissues of the deterrent activities of β-damascone and its analogues. Activity of β-damascone and β-damascone-derived compounds depended on their substituents, which was manifested in the variation in the potency of the behavioural effect and differences in aphid probing phases that were affected. β-Damascone appeared a behaviourally inactive compound. The moderately active β-damascone ester affected aphid activities only during the phloem phase. The highly active deterrents-dihydro-β-damascol, β-damascone acetate, δ-bromo-γ-lactone, and unsaturated γ-lactone-affected pre-phloem and phloem aphid probing activities. The most effective structural modification that evoked the strongest negative response from M. persicae was the transformation of β-damascone into δ-bromo-γ-lactone. The behavioural effect of this transformation was demonstrated in frequent interruption of probing in peripheral tissues, which caused repeated failures in finding sieve elements, and reduction in the ingestion time during the phloem phase in favour of watery salivation. The inhibition of aphid probing at both the pre-phloem and phloem levels reveals the passage of the compounds studied through the plant surface and their distribution within plant tissues in a systemic way, which may reduce the risk of the transmission of non-persistent and persistent viruses.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus