Patterned Anchorage to the Apical Extracellular Matrix Defines Tissue Shape in the Developing Appendages of Drosophila.
Bottom Line: Here, we describe a genetic pathway that shapes appendages in Drosophila by defining the pattern of global tensile forces in the tissue.Altering Dp expression in the developing wing results in predictable changes in wing shape that can be simulated by a computational model that incorporates only tissue contraction and localized anchorage.Three other wing shape genes, narrow, tapered, and lanceolate, encode components of a pathway that modulates Dp distribution in the wing to refine the global force pattern and thus wing shape.
Affiliation: School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QG, UK; The Francis Crick Institute, Lincoln's Inn Fields Laboratory, 44 Lincoln's Inn Fields, London WC2A 3PX, UK. Electronic address: email@example.com.Show MeSH
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Mentions: The tapered wing phenotypes we have observed with brk-Gal4>dp-RNAi and hh-Gal4>dp-RNAi are reminiscent of the wing phenotypes produced by three other loci, narrow (nw), tapered (ta), and lanceolate (ll), that were first identified early in the last century (Meyer and Edmondson, 1949; Morgan et al., 1925). Inactivation of these genes produces a range of phenotypes that can be generalized as a narrowing and lengthening of the wing. The phenotypes associated with nw alleles are dosage sensitive. Dominant antimorphic alleles (e.g., nwD/+, nwB/+) and weak hypomorphs produce a mild tapering of the distal part of the wing (Figures 5A and 5B), while recessive alleles give rise to the dramatic narrowing of the entire wing blade after which the gene is named (Figure 5C). The same range of phenotypes can be recapitulated by RNAi knockdown using nub-Gal4 or Tub-Gal4 (Figures 5D and 6A) to drive hairpin constructs directed toward different exons of the nw transcript (see Figure S2). Alleles of ta and ll, which are hypomorphic for the loci (see below), produce the weaker phenotype characteristic of the dominant alleles of nw (Figures 5E and 5F).
Affiliation: School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QG, UK; The Francis Crick Institute, Lincoln's Inn Fields Laboratory, 44 Lincoln's Inn Fields, London WC2A 3PX, UK. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.