Patterned Anchorage to the Apical Extracellular Matrix Defines Tissue Shape in the Developing Appendages of Drosophila.
Bottom Line: Here, we describe a genetic pathway that shapes appendages in Drosophila by defining the pattern of global tensile forces in the tissue.Altering Dp expression in the developing wing results in predictable changes in wing shape that can be simulated by a computational model that incorporates only tissue contraction and localized anchorage.Three other wing shape genes, narrow, tapered, and lanceolate, encode components of a pathway that modulates Dp distribution in the wing to refine the global force pattern and thus wing shape.
Affiliation: School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QG, UK; The Francis Crick Institute, Lincoln's Inn Fields Laboratory, 44 Lincoln's Inn Fields, London WC2A 3PX, UK. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.Show MeSH
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Mentions: Our results suggest a mechanism whereby the localization of Dp at 18 hr APF defines the pattern of attachment to the pupal cuticle. In support of this view, we find that in wild-type, the wing margin is attached to the overlying pupal cuticle during the early phase of hinge contraction, as has been observed previously for wings cultured in vitro (Turner and Adler, 1995). By contrast, in dp mutants, the wing is not attached and appears to float freely within the pupal cuticle (Figures 3A and 3B, arrows). Furthermore, the wing shape of dp mutants diverges from wild-type only during pupal development, as reported by Waddington (1940). At 18 hr APF, the size and shape of dp mutant wings are not substantially different from wild-type (Figures 3C and 3D). However, over the course hinge contraction, the dp mutant wing blade pulls away from the cuticle, and the tissue contracts into a rounded cup-shape that prefigures the shape of the adult wing (Figures 3C and 3D, bottom; cf. Figures 1A and 1E).
Affiliation: School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QG, UK; The Francis Crick Institute, Lincoln's Inn Fields Laboratory, 44 Lincoln's Inn Fields, London WC2A 3PX, UK. Electronic address: email@example.com.