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The Two-Way Association of Periodontal Infection with Systemic Disorders: An Overview.

Nagpal R, Yamashiro Y, Izumi Y - Mediators Inflamm. (2015)

Bottom Line: However, despite a significant increase in the prevalence of periodontal infections and systemic diseases in the past few decades, the fundamental biological mechanisms of connection between these ailments are still not fully explicated.Consequently, the mechanisms by which this bidirectional damage occurs are being explored with a concentric vision to develop strategies that could prevent or control the complications of these ailments.This paper attempts to summarize and hypothesize the diverse mechanisms that hint to a certain connection between the two prevalent chronic situations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Probiotics Research Laboratory, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Oral cavity that harbors diverse bacterial populations could also act as a site of origin for spread of pathogenic microorganisms to different body sites, particularly in immunocompromised hosts, patients, the elderly, or the underprivileged. A number of recent publications have advocated that patients with periodontal diseases are more susceptible to metabolic endotoxemia, inflammation, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other related systemic complications, concluding that periodontal diseases could be a potential contributing risk factor for a wide array of clinically important systemic diseases. However, despite a significant increase in the prevalence of periodontal infections and systemic diseases in the past few decades, the fundamental biological mechanisms of connection between these ailments are still not fully explicated. Consequently, the mechanisms by which this bidirectional damage occurs are being explored with a concentric vision to develop strategies that could prevent or control the complications of these ailments. This paper attempts to summarize and hypothesize the diverse mechanisms that hint to a certain connection between the two prevalent chronic situations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Possible role of periodontal infection in respiratory diseases.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig4: Possible role of periodontal infection in respiratory diseases.

Mentions: Poor oral health may also predispose the host to respiratory diseases, particularly in high-risk patients such as residential nursing patients, hospitalized patients, elderly, smokers, and the underprivileged. In periodontal infections, the aspiration or hematogenous spread of bacteria from the oropharynx into the lower respiratory tract and the consequent infection of respiratory ducts can easily cause respiratory infections such as pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases [63, 64] (Figure 4). Since the oral cavity is adjacent to the trachea, it could be an easy entrance for the immigration and colonization of respiratory pathogen. Respiratory pathogens may infrequently populate dental plaques and may also be aspirated/inhaled from the oropharynx into the upper airway and then the lower airway where they may adhere to the alveolar and bronchial epithelium [65–67]. In periodontal patients, one mm3 of dental plaque may contain about 109 bacteria and hence could serve as a persistent pool for potential oral/respiratory pathogens which could be shed into the saliva and aspirated into the lower respiratory tract and the lungs to cause infection [68] (Figure 4). Further, the cytokines and enzymes induced from the inflamed periodontal tissues may also relocate into the lungs and trigger local inflammatory processes and lung infections [34]. Also, in periodontal diseases, poor oral hygiene may result in a higher concentration of oral pathogens in the saliva, and these pathogens may be aspirated into the lung overcoming the immune defenses and assist the pulmonary pathogens in inhabiting the upper airways. Generally, in healthy scenarios, the respiratory tract is capable of defending against aspirated bacteria. However, in periodontal diseases, the disturbed oral hygiene, reduced salivary flow, decreased cough reflex, dysphagia, and other disabilities can predispose the patients to a high risk for pulmonary infections [69–74].


The Two-Way Association of Periodontal Infection with Systemic Disorders: An Overview.

Nagpal R, Yamashiro Y, Izumi Y - Mediators Inflamm. (2015)

Possible role of periodontal infection in respiratory diseases.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4539125&req=5

fig4: Possible role of periodontal infection in respiratory diseases.
Mentions: Poor oral health may also predispose the host to respiratory diseases, particularly in high-risk patients such as residential nursing patients, hospitalized patients, elderly, smokers, and the underprivileged. In periodontal infections, the aspiration or hematogenous spread of bacteria from the oropharynx into the lower respiratory tract and the consequent infection of respiratory ducts can easily cause respiratory infections such as pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases [63, 64] (Figure 4). Since the oral cavity is adjacent to the trachea, it could be an easy entrance for the immigration and colonization of respiratory pathogen. Respiratory pathogens may infrequently populate dental plaques and may also be aspirated/inhaled from the oropharynx into the upper airway and then the lower airway where they may adhere to the alveolar and bronchial epithelium [65–67]. In periodontal patients, one mm3 of dental plaque may contain about 109 bacteria and hence could serve as a persistent pool for potential oral/respiratory pathogens which could be shed into the saliva and aspirated into the lower respiratory tract and the lungs to cause infection [68] (Figure 4). Further, the cytokines and enzymes induced from the inflamed periodontal tissues may also relocate into the lungs and trigger local inflammatory processes and lung infections [34]. Also, in periodontal diseases, poor oral hygiene may result in a higher concentration of oral pathogens in the saliva, and these pathogens may be aspirated into the lung overcoming the immune defenses and assist the pulmonary pathogens in inhabiting the upper airways. Generally, in healthy scenarios, the respiratory tract is capable of defending against aspirated bacteria. However, in periodontal diseases, the disturbed oral hygiene, reduced salivary flow, decreased cough reflex, dysphagia, and other disabilities can predispose the patients to a high risk for pulmonary infections [69–74].

Bottom Line: However, despite a significant increase in the prevalence of periodontal infections and systemic diseases in the past few decades, the fundamental biological mechanisms of connection between these ailments are still not fully explicated.Consequently, the mechanisms by which this bidirectional damage occurs are being explored with a concentric vision to develop strategies that could prevent or control the complications of these ailments.This paper attempts to summarize and hypothesize the diverse mechanisms that hint to a certain connection between the two prevalent chronic situations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Probiotics Research Laboratory, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Oral cavity that harbors diverse bacterial populations could also act as a site of origin for spread of pathogenic microorganisms to different body sites, particularly in immunocompromised hosts, patients, the elderly, or the underprivileged. A number of recent publications have advocated that patients with periodontal diseases are more susceptible to metabolic endotoxemia, inflammation, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other related systemic complications, concluding that periodontal diseases could be a potential contributing risk factor for a wide array of clinically important systemic diseases. However, despite a significant increase in the prevalence of periodontal infections and systemic diseases in the past few decades, the fundamental biological mechanisms of connection between these ailments are still not fully explicated. Consequently, the mechanisms by which this bidirectional damage occurs are being explored with a concentric vision to develop strategies that could prevent or control the complications of these ailments. This paper attempts to summarize and hypothesize the diverse mechanisms that hint to a certain connection between the two prevalent chronic situations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus