Limits...
The Two-Way Association of Periodontal Infection with Systemic Disorders: An Overview.

Nagpal R, Yamashiro Y, Izumi Y - Mediators Inflamm. (2015)

Bottom Line: However, despite a significant increase in the prevalence of periodontal infections and systemic diseases in the past few decades, the fundamental biological mechanisms of connection between these ailments are still not fully explicated.Consequently, the mechanisms by which this bidirectional damage occurs are being explored with a concentric vision to develop strategies that could prevent or control the complications of these ailments.This paper attempts to summarize and hypothesize the diverse mechanisms that hint to a certain connection between the two prevalent chronic situations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Probiotics Research Laboratory, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Oral cavity that harbors diverse bacterial populations could also act as a site of origin for spread of pathogenic microorganisms to different body sites, particularly in immunocompromised hosts, patients, the elderly, or the underprivileged. A number of recent publications have advocated that patients with periodontal diseases are more susceptible to metabolic endotoxemia, inflammation, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other related systemic complications, concluding that periodontal diseases could be a potential contributing risk factor for a wide array of clinically important systemic diseases. However, despite a significant increase in the prevalence of periodontal infections and systemic diseases in the past few decades, the fundamental biological mechanisms of connection between these ailments are still not fully explicated. Consequently, the mechanisms by which this bidirectional damage occurs are being explored with a concentric vision to develop strategies that could prevent or control the complications of these ailments. This paper attempts to summarize and hypothesize the diverse mechanisms that hint to a certain connection between the two prevalent chronic situations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Diagram of periodontal disease leading to other complications.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4539125&req=5

fig1: Diagram of periodontal disease leading to other complications.

Mentions: Periodontitis is a multifactorial disease with numerous systemic or local risk factors playing a part in its clinical sequences. Periodontal diseases are influenced by various risk factors including ageing, smoking, oral hygiene, socioeconomic status, genetics, race, gender, psychosocial stress, osteopenia, osteoporosis, and other medical conditions including obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) [1, 2], signifying that periodontitis does not occur merely as a consequence of plaque accretion but is also coupled with various host factors which could alter the consequence of the plaque on a particular individual. Recent findings have suggested that chronic low-grade inflammation is directly involved not only in the pathogenesis of obesity, diabetes, and their complications but also in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases [3, 4], where cytokines play a central role in the host's responses to the periodontal biofilms. A number of diverse studies have indicated that periodontal diseases may also be associated with a wide array of systemic diseases and conditions (Figure 1). The primary putative facts that support the biological connection between periodontitis and systemic diseases are (a) usual implication of infection in the pathogenesis of both diseases, (b) transient and low-grade bacteremia and endotoxemia caused by periodontal diseases, (c) systemic immune responses and inflammation triggered by periodontal diseases, (d) expression of virulence factors by periodontal pathogens, and (e) presence of periodontal pathogens in nonoral tissues like atheromatous plaques [5–7]. Although the detailed mechanisms underlying this association are still unclear, available reports evidently demonstrate a bidirectional link between the mechanism of periodontal diseases and systemic/metabolic diseases where both conditions could aggravate each other [1, 8, 9].


The Two-Way Association of Periodontal Infection with Systemic Disorders: An Overview.

Nagpal R, Yamashiro Y, Izumi Y - Mediators Inflamm. (2015)

Diagram of periodontal disease leading to other complications.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4539125&req=5

fig1: Diagram of periodontal disease leading to other complications.
Mentions: Periodontitis is a multifactorial disease with numerous systemic or local risk factors playing a part in its clinical sequences. Periodontal diseases are influenced by various risk factors including ageing, smoking, oral hygiene, socioeconomic status, genetics, race, gender, psychosocial stress, osteopenia, osteoporosis, and other medical conditions including obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) [1, 2], signifying that periodontitis does not occur merely as a consequence of plaque accretion but is also coupled with various host factors which could alter the consequence of the plaque on a particular individual. Recent findings have suggested that chronic low-grade inflammation is directly involved not only in the pathogenesis of obesity, diabetes, and their complications but also in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases [3, 4], where cytokines play a central role in the host's responses to the periodontal biofilms. A number of diverse studies have indicated that periodontal diseases may also be associated with a wide array of systemic diseases and conditions (Figure 1). The primary putative facts that support the biological connection between periodontitis and systemic diseases are (a) usual implication of infection in the pathogenesis of both diseases, (b) transient and low-grade bacteremia and endotoxemia caused by periodontal diseases, (c) systemic immune responses and inflammation triggered by periodontal diseases, (d) expression of virulence factors by periodontal pathogens, and (e) presence of periodontal pathogens in nonoral tissues like atheromatous plaques [5–7]. Although the detailed mechanisms underlying this association are still unclear, available reports evidently demonstrate a bidirectional link between the mechanism of periodontal diseases and systemic/metabolic diseases where both conditions could aggravate each other [1, 8, 9].

Bottom Line: However, despite a significant increase in the prevalence of periodontal infections and systemic diseases in the past few decades, the fundamental biological mechanisms of connection between these ailments are still not fully explicated.Consequently, the mechanisms by which this bidirectional damage occurs are being explored with a concentric vision to develop strategies that could prevent or control the complications of these ailments.This paper attempts to summarize and hypothesize the diverse mechanisms that hint to a certain connection between the two prevalent chronic situations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Probiotics Research Laboratory, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Oral cavity that harbors diverse bacterial populations could also act as a site of origin for spread of pathogenic microorganisms to different body sites, particularly in immunocompromised hosts, patients, the elderly, or the underprivileged. A number of recent publications have advocated that patients with periodontal diseases are more susceptible to metabolic endotoxemia, inflammation, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other related systemic complications, concluding that periodontal diseases could be a potential contributing risk factor for a wide array of clinically important systemic diseases. However, despite a significant increase in the prevalence of periodontal infections and systemic diseases in the past few decades, the fundamental biological mechanisms of connection between these ailments are still not fully explicated. Consequently, the mechanisms by which this bidirectional damage occurs are being explored with a concentric vision to develop strategies that could prevent or control the complications of these ailments. This paper attempts to summarize and hypothesize the diverse mechanisms that hint to a certain connection between the two prevalent chronic situations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus