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The influence of label co-occurrence and semantic similarity on children's inductive generalization.

Matlen BJ, Fisher AV, Godwin KE - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: However, it remains unclear whether this effect stems from co-occurrence or other factors, and how co-occurrence contributes to generalization.Experiment 2 replicated this effect and provided evidence that co-occurrence training influenced generalization only when the trained labels were categorically-similar.The findings are discussed in relation to the developmental accounts of inductive generalization.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Engineering, and Mathematics Program, Technology, Science, WestEd STEM Program , Redwood City, CA, USA.

ABSTRACT
Semantically-similar labels that co-occur in child-directed speech (e.g., bunny-rabbit) are more likely to promote inductive generalization in preschoolers than non-co-occurring labels (e.g., lamb-sheep). However, it remains unclear whether this effect stems from co-occurrence or other factors, and how co-occurrence contributes to generalization. To address these issues, preschoolers were exposed to a stream of semantically-similar labels that don't co-occur in natural language, but were arranged to co-occur in the experimental setting. In Experiment 1, children exposed to the co-occurring stream were more likely to make category-consistent inferences than children in two control conditions. Experiment 2 replicated this effect and provided evidence that co-occurrence training influenced generalization only when the trained labels were categorically-similar. These findings suggest that both co-occurrence information and semantic representations contribute to preschool-age children's inductive generalization. The findings are discussed in relation to the developmental accounts of inductive generalization.

No MeSH data available.


Schematic depiction of the Co-occurrence Training speech stream (top) and Frequency Training speech stream (bottom).
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Figure 1: Schematic depiction of the Co-occurrence Training speech stream (top) and Frequency Training speech stream (bottom).

Mentions: To create the Co-occurring speech stream in which Target and Category-choice items co-occurred, a female native English speaker was recorded pronouncing each of the four semantically similar label-pairs individually3. Each recording was then edited to last approximately one second in duration and these recordings were used to create a speech stream in which each semantically similar label-pair occurred a total of 75 times. A short pause that lasted approximately 500 ms was included in between each label-pair, and label-pairs were arranged such that they had an equal probability of occurring next to any other label-pair (33%; see Figure 1). The speech stream lasted for a total of 7.5 min.


The influence of label co-occurrence and semantic similarity on children's inductive generalization.

Matlen BJ, Fisher AV, Godwin KE - Front Psychol (2015)

Schematic depiction of the Co-occurrence Training speech stream (top) and Frequency Training speech stream (bottom).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4538920&req=5

Figure 1: Schematic depiction of the Co-occurrence Training speech stream (top) and Frequency Training speech stream (bottom).
Mentions: To create the Co-occurring speech stream in which Target and Category-choice items co-occurred, a female native English speaker was recorded pronouncing each of the four semantically similar label-pairs individually3. Each recording was then edited to last approximately one second in duration and these recordings were used to create a speech stream in which each semantically similar label-pair occurred a total of 75 times. A short pause that lasted approximately 500 ms was included in between each label-pair, and label-pairs were arranged such that they had an equal probability of occurring next to any other label-pair (33%; see Figure 1). The speech stream lasted for a total of 7.5 min.

Bottom Line: However, it remains unclear whether this effect stems from co-occurrence or other factors, and how co-occurrence contributes to generalization.Experiment 2 replicated this effect and provided evidence that co-occurrence training influenced generalization only when the trained labels were categorically-similar.The findings are discussed in relation to the developmental accounts of inductive generalization.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Engineering, and Mathematics Program, Technology, Science, WestEd STEM Program , Redwood City, CA, USA.

ABSTRACT
Semantically-similar labels that co-occur in child-directed speech (e.g., bunny-rabbit) are more likely to promote inductive generalization in preschoolers than non-co-occurring labels (e.g., lamb-sheep). However, it remains unclear whether this effect stems from co-occurrence or other factors, and how co-occurrence contributes to generalization. To address these issues, preschoolers were exposed to a stream of semantically-similar labels that don't co-occur in natural language, but were arranged to co-occur in the experimental setting. In Experiment 1, children exposed to the co-occurring stream were more likely to make category-consistent inferences than children in two control conditions. Experiment 2 replicated this effect and provided evidence that co-occurrence training influenced generalization only when the trained labels were categorically-similar. These findings suggest that both co-occurrence information and semantic representations contribute to preschool-age children's inductive generalization. The findings are discussed in relation to the developmental accounts of inductive generalization.

No MeSH data available.