Limits...
The effectiveness of working memory training with individuals with intellectual disabilities - a meta-analytic review.

Danielsson H, Zottarel V, Palmqvist L, Lanfranchi S - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: The results reveal a significant, but small, overall pretest-posttest effect size (ES) for WM training for individuals with ID compared to controls.We conclude that even if there is an overall effect of WM training, a mixed WM approach appears to cause this effect.Even if the results were promising, more studies are needed to better understand how to design an effective WM intervention for this group and to understand if, and how, these short-term effects remain over time and transfer to everyday activities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University Linköping, Sweden ; The Swedish Institute for Disability Research Linköping, Sweden.

ABSTRACT
Working memory (WM) training has been increasingly popular in the last years. Previous studies have shown that individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) have low WM capacity and therefore would benefit by this type of intervention. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of WM and cognitive training for individuals with ID. The effects reported in previous studies have varied and therefore a meta-analysis of articles in the major databases was conducted. Inclusion criteria included to have a pretest-posttest design with a training group and a control group and to have measures of WM or short-term memory. Ten studies with 28 comparisons were included. The results reveal a significant, but small, overall pretest-posttest effect size (ES) for WM training for individuals with ID compared to controls. A mixed WM approach, including both verbal and visuo-spatial components working mainly on strategies, was the only significant training type with a medium ES. The most commonly reported training type, visuo-spatial WM training, was performed in 60 percent of the included comparisons and had a non-significant ES close to zero. We conclude that even if there is an overall effect of WM training, a mixed WM approach appears to cause this effect. Given the few studies included and the different characteristics of the included studies, interpretations should be done with caution. However, different types of interventions appear to have different effects. Even if the results were promising, more studies are needed to better understand how to design an effective WM intervention for this group and to understand if, and how, these short-term effects remain over time and transfer to everyday activities.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Forrest plot for training group post-test minus pre-test effect sizes (ESs) sorted by type of training and test type. The overall ES for each training type is displayed by a line. Type of training and type of test are listed in the two left columns.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4538918&req=5

Figure 2: Forrest plot for training group post-test minus pre-test effect sizes (ESs) sorted by type of training and test type. The overall ES for each training type is displayed by a line. Type of training and type of test are listed in the two left columns.

Mentions: The ESs for all studies are shown in Figure 2 for the training group and in Figure 3 for the training group minus control group. The studies are sorted by type of training and then by the magnitude of the ES. As can be seen, there were large variations in ESs and large confidence intervals in many cases. There were even studies where the confidence interval does not cover the overall ES for that type of training. This indicates that the included articles indeed have different characteristics, or that some studies could have low quality.


The effectiveness of working memory training with individuals with intellectual disabilities - a meta-analytic review.

Danielsson H, Zottarel V, Palmqvist L, Lanfranchi S - Front Psychol (2015)

Forrest plot for training group post-test minus pre-test effect sizes (ESs) sorted by type of training and test type. The overall ES for each training type is displayed by a line. Type of training and type of test are listed in the two left columns.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4538918&req=5

Figure 2: Forrest plot for training group post-test minus pre-test effect sizes (ESs) sorted by type of training and test type. The overall ES for each training type is displayed by a line. Type of training and type of test are listed in the two left columns.
Mentions: The ESs for all studies are shown in Figure 2 for the training group and in Figure 3 for the training group minus control group. The studies are sorted by type of training and then by the magnitude of the ES. As can be seen, there were large variations in ESs and large confidence intervals in many cases. There were even studies where the confidence interval does not cover the overall ES for that type of training. This indicates that the included articles indeed have different characteristics, or that some studies could have low quality.

Bottom Line: The results reveal a significant, but small, overall pretest-posttest effect size (ES) for WM training for individuals with ID compared to controls.We conclude that even if there is an overall effect of WM training, a mixed WM approach appears to cause this effect.Even if the results were promising, more studies are needed to better understand how to design an effective WM intervention for this group and to understand if, and how, these short-term effects remain over time and transfer to everyday activities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University Linköping, Sweden ; The Swedish Institute for Disability Research Linköping, Sweden.

ABSTRACT
Working memory (WM) training has been increasingly popular in the last years. Previous studies have shown that individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) have low WM capacity and therefore would benefit by this type of intervention. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of WM and cognitive training for individuals with ID. The effects reported in previous studies have varied and therefore a meta-analysis of articles in the major databases was conducted. Inclusion criteria included to have a pretest-posttest design with a training group and a control group and to have measures of WM or short-term memory. Ten studies with 28 comparisons were included. The results reveal a significant, but small, overall pretest-posttest effect size (ES) for WM training for individuals with ID compared to controls. A mixed WM approach, including both verbal and visuo-spatial components working mainly on strategies, was the only significant training type with a medium ES. The most commonly reported training type, visuo-spatial WM training, was performed in 60 percent of the included comparisons and had a non-significant ES close to zero. We conclude that even if there is an overall effect of WM training, a mixed WM approach appears to cause this effect. Given the few studies included and the different characteristics of the included studies, interpretations should be done with caution. However, different types of interventions appear to have different effects. Even if the results were promising, more studies are needed to better understand how to design an effective WM intervention for this group and to understand if, and how, these short-term effects remain over time and transfer to everyday activities.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus