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Experimental Comparison of Efficiency of First Aid Dressings in Burning White Phosphorus on Bacon Model.

Witkowski W, Surowiecka-Pastewka A, Biesaga M, Gierczak T - Med. Sci. Monit. (2015)

Bottom Line: Moist gauze was especially effective in extinguishing WP, and also removed and absorbed the majority of the WP mass, preventing deeper penetration of WP particles.A stream of water was dangerous, as it splashed and transferred pieces of WP around.We recommend moist gauze, used once or twice, as the best primary means for WP elimination and preventing tissue penetration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Burns Unit, Military Institute of Medicine, Warsaw, Poland.

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this study was to determine effectiveness of first aid dressings in extinguishing burning white phosphorous (WP), eliminating WP pieces from the surface, inhibiting re-ignition on the model (fresh bacon covered with military uniform), and preventing from late re-ignition caused by persistent WP pieces.

Material and methods: Burning WP was extinguished with several dressings: tactical Military Dressing (WJ10), wet gauze, 2 hydrocolloids, and 3 prototypes of hydrocolloids developed by the authors.

Results: All examined dressings were effective in extinguishing WP provided that the entire area of the burning substance was completely covered. Moist gauze was especially effective in extinguishing WP, and also removed and absorbed the majority of the WP mass, preventing deeper penetration of WP particles. The immediate re-ignition was observed when all the remaining examined dressings were removed from the bacon. A stream of water was dangerous, as it splashed and transferred pieces of WP around.

Conclusions: Moist gauze placed on burning WP for approximately 3 min was most effective in extinguishing WP and removing most of the WP pieces. We recommend moist gauze, used once or twice, as the best primary means for WP elimination and preventing tissue penetration. As a dressing used for medical evacuation (MEDEVAC), or as a second step after complete removal of visible WP, innovative hydrocolloid or hydrogel dressings should be used.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The depth of WP penetration examined after 24 h. Impact of the examined dressing on bacon burns, in all samples above, the dressings were taken off after 5 minutes. (A) Control “healthy”. (B) Moist gauze. (C) Aqua Gel. (D) Hydrocolloid with NaHCO3. (E) Control “burned”. (F) WJ10. (G) Glycol hydrocolloid.
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f3-medscimonit-21-2361: The depth of WP penetration examined after 24 h. Impact of the examined dressing on bacon burns, in all samples above, the dressings were taken off after 5 minutes. (A) Control “healthy”. (B) Moist gauze. (C) Aqua Gel. (D) Hydrocolloid with NaHCO3. (E) Control “burned”. (F) WJ10. (G) Glycol hydrocolloid.

Mentions: Only the moist gauze prevented WP from penetrating. When the bacon was incised after 24 h, there were no signs of residual WP. In contrast, bacon samples treated with other investigated dressings, had a characteristic smell after making an incision, with smoke and, in some cases, sparking. Only the samples covered with moist gauze and WJ10 did not show bacon injury. In every other case, the bacon surface was injured and, in comparison with controls, which were unburned (“healthy bacon” and “burned bacon” on which WP was burned without any dressing), all dressings occluded the burn area and worsened the injury. Table 1 presents the influence of time during the dressing covered WP on damage to fresh bacon (Figure 3).


Experimental Comparison of Efficiency of First Aid Dressings in Burning White Phosphorus on Bacon Model.

Witkowski W, Surowiecka-Pastewka A, Biesaga M, Gierczak T - Med. Sci. Monit. (2015)

The depth of WP penetration examined after 24 h. Impact of the examined dressing on bacon burns, in all samples above, the dressings were taken off after 5 minutes. (A) Control “healthy”. (B) Moist gauze. (C) Aqua Gel. (D) Hydrocolloid with NaHCO3. (E) Control “burned”. (F) WJ10. (G) Glycol hydrocolloid.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4538885&req=5

f3-medscimonit-21-2361: The depth of WP penetration examined after 24 h. Impact of the examined dressing on bacon burns, in all samples above, the dressings were taken off after 5 minutes. (A) Control “healthy”. (B) Moist gauze. (C) Aqua Gel. (D) Hydrocolloid with NaHCO3. (E) Control “burned”. (F) WJ10. (G) Glycol hydrocolloid.
Mentions: Only the moist gauze prevented WP from penetrating. When the bacon was incised after 24 h, there were no signs of residual WP. In contrast, bacon samples treated with other investigated dressings, had a characteristic smell after making an incision, with smoke and, in some cases, sparking. Only the samples covered with moist gauze and WJ10 did not show bacon injury. In every other case, the bacon surface was injured and, in comparison with controls, which were unburned (“healthy bacon” and “burned bacon” on which WP was burned without any dressing), all dressings occluded the burn area and worsened the injury. Table 1 presents the influence of time during the dressing covered WP on damage to fresh bacon (Figure 3).

Bottom Line: Moist gauze was especially effective in extinguishing WP, and also removed and absorbed the majority of the WP mass, preventing deeper penetration of WP particles.A stream of water was dangerous, as it splashed and transferred pieces of WP around.We recommend moist gauze, used once or twice, as the best primary means for WP elimination and preventing tissue penetration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Burns Unit, Military Institute of Medicine, Warsaw, Poland.

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this study was to determine effectiveness of first aid dressings in extinguishing burning white phosphorous (WP), eliminating WP pieces from the surface, inhibiting re-ignition on the model (fresh bacon covered with military uniform), and preventing from late re-ignition caused by persistent WP pieces.

Material and methods: Burning WP was extinguished with several dressings: tactical Military Dressing (WJ10), wet gauze, 2 hydrocolloids, and 3 prototypes of hydrocolloids developed by the authors.

Results: All examined dressings were effective in extinguishing WP provided that the entire area of the burning substance was completely covered. Moist gauze was especially effective in extinguishing WP, and also removed and absorbed the majority of the WP mass, preventing deeper penetration of WP particles. The immediate re-ignition was observed when all the remaining examined dressings were removed from the bacon. A stream of water was dangerous, as it splashed and transferred pieces of WP around.

Conclusions: Moist gauze placed on burning WP for approximately 3 min was most effective in extinguishing WP and removing most of the WP pieces. We recommend moist gauze, used once or twice, as the best primary means for WP elimination and preventing tissue penetration. As a dressing used for medical evacuation (MEDEVAC), or as a second step after complete removal of visible WP, innovative hydrocolloid or hydrogel dressings should be used.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus