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Experimental Comparison of Efficiency of First Aid Dressings in Burning White Phosphorus on Bacon Model.

Witkowski W, Surowiecka-Pastewka A, Biesaga M, Gierczak T - Med. Sci. Monit. (2015)

Bottom Line: Moist gauze was especially effective in extinguishing WP, and also removed and absorbed the majority of the WP mass, preventing deeper penetration of WP particles.A stream of water was dangerous, as it splashed and transferred pieces of WP around.We recommend moist gauze, used once or twice, as the best primary means for WP elimination and preventing tissue penetration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Burns Unit, Military Institute of Medicine, Warsaw, Poland.

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this study was to determine effectiveness of first aid dressings in extinguishing burning white phosphorous (WP), eliminating WP pieces from the surface, inhibiting re-ignition on the model (fresh bacon covered with military uniform), and preventing from late re-ignition caused by persistent WP pieces.

Material and methods: Burning WP was extinguished with several dressings: tactical Military Dressing (WJ10), wet gauze, 2 hydrocolloids, and 3 prototypes of hydrocolloids developed by the authors.

Results: All examined dressings were effective in extinguishing WP provided that the entire area of the burning substance was completely covered. Moist gauze was especially effective in extinguishing WP, and also removed and absorbed the majority of the WP mass, preventing deeper penetration of WP particles. The immediate re-ignition was observed when all the remaining examined dressings were removed from the bacon. A stream of water was dangerous, as it splashed and transferred pieces of WP around.

Conclusions: Moist gauze placed on burning WP for approximately 3 min was most effective in extinguishing WP and removing most of the WP pieces. We recommend moist gauze, used once or twice, as the best primary means for WP elimination and preventing tissue penetration. As a dressing used for medical evacuation (MEDEVAC), or as a second step after complete removal of visible WP, innovative hydrocolloid or hydrogel dressings should be used.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A–C) Three stages of phosphorous combustion on a military uniform. Stages of WP burning on fresh bacon (pol. “BOCZEK”) covered with field uniform (pol.“MUNDUR”), description in text.
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f2-medscimonit-21-2361: (A–C) Three stages of phosphorous combustion on a military uniform. Stages of WP burning on fresh bacon (pol. “BOCZEK”) covered with field uniform (pol.“MUNDUR”), description in text.

Mentions: Figure 2 shows the 3 stages of phosphorous burning on a military uniform. After setting WP on fire (Figure 2A), it burned on the surface of the uniform, but some amount of liquid WP went through the fabric even though the fire was out (Figure 2B). The uniform removal caused the flow of oxygen and immediate re-ignition (Figure 2C). The removal of WP by streaming water was also examined. The stream of water splashes and transfers pieces of burning phosphorus, and the WP splashes into pieces, the trajectory of which is unpredictable.


Experimental Comparison of Efficiency of First Aid Dressings in Burning White Phosphorus on Bacon Model.

Witkowski W, Surowiecka-Pastewka A, Biesaga M, Gierczak T - Med. Sci. Monit. (2015)

(A–C) Three stages of phosphorous combustion on a military uniform. Stages of WP burning on fresh bacon (pol. “BOCZEK”) covered with field uniform (pol.“MUNDUR”), description in text.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4538885&req=5

f2-medscimonit-21-2361: (A–C) Three stages of phosphorous combustion on a military uniform. Stages of WP burning on fresh bacon (pol. “BOCZEK”) covered with field uniform (pol.“MUNDUR”), description in text.
Mentions: Figure 2 shows the 3 stages of phosphorous burning on a military uniform. After setting WP on fire (Figure 2A), it burned on the surface of the uniform, but some amount of liquid WP went through the fabric even though the fire was out (Figure 2B). The uniform removal caused the flow of oxygen and immediate re-ignition (Figure 2C). The removal of WP by streaming water was also examined. The stream of water splashes and transfers pieces of burning phosphorus, and the WP splashes into pieces, the trajectory of which is unpredictable.

Bottom Line: Moist gauze was especially effective in extinguishing WP, and also removed and absorbed the majority of the WP mass, preventing deeper penetration of WP particles.A stream of water was dangerous, as it splashed and transferred pieces of WP around.We recommend moist gauze, used once or twice, as the best primary means for WP elimination and preventing tissue penetration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Burns Unit, Military Institute of Medicine, Warsaw, Poland.

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this study was to determine effectiveness of first aid dressings in extinguishing burning white phosphorous (WP), eliminating WP pieces from the surface, inhibiting re-ignition on the model (fresh bacon covered with military uniform), and preventing from late re-ignition caused by persistent WP pieces.

Material and methods: Burning WP was extinguished with several dressings: tactical Military Dressing (WJ10), wet gauze, 2 hydrocolloids, and 3 prototypes of hydrocolloids developed by the authors.

Results: All examined dressings were effective in extinguishing WP provided that the entire area of the burning substance was completely covered. Moist gauze was especially effective in extinguishing WP, and also removed and absorbed the majority of the WP mass, preventing deeper penetration of WP particles. The immediate re-ignition was observed when all the remaining examined dressings were removed from the bacon. A stream of water was dangerous, as it splashed and transferred pieces of WP around.

Conclusions: Moist gauze placed on burning WP for approximately 3 min was most effective in extinguishing WP and removing most of the WP pieces. We recommend moist gauze, used once or twice, as the best primary means for WP elimination and preventing tissue penetration. As a dressing used for medical evacuation (MEDEVAC), or as a second step after complete removal of visible WP, innovative hydrocolloid or hydrogel dressings should be used.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus