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Experimental Comparison of Efficiency of First Aid Dressings in Burning White Phosphorus on Bacon Model.

Witkowski W, Surowiecka-Pastewka A, Biesaga M, Gierczak T - Med. Sci. Monit. (2015)

Bottom Line: Moist gauze was especially effective in extinguishing WP, and also removed and absorbed the majority of the WP mass, preventing deeper penetration of WP particles.A stream of water was dangerous, as it splashed and transferred pieces of WP around.We recommend moist gauze, used once or twice, as the best primary means for WP elimination and preventing tissue penetration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Burns Unit, Military Institute of Medicine, Warsaw, Poland.

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this study was to determine effectiveness of first aid dressings in extinguishing burning white phosphorous (WP), eliminating WP pieces from the surface, inhibiting re-ignition on the model (fresh bacon covered with military uniform), and preventing from late re-ignition caused by persistent WP pieces.

Material and methods: Burning WP was extinguished with several dressings: tactical Military Dressing (WJ10), wet gauze, 2 hydrocolloids, and 3 prototypes of hydrocolloids developed by the authors.

Results: All examined dressings were effective in extinguishing WP provided that the entire area of the burning substance was completely covered. Moist gauze was especially effective in extinguishing WP, and also removed and absorbed the majority of the WP mass, preventing deeper penetration of WP particles. The immediate re-ignition was observed when all the remaining examined dressings were removed from the bacon. A stream of water was dangerous, as it splashed and transferred pieces of WP around.

Conclusions: Moist gauze placed on burning WP for approximately 3 min was most effective in extinguishing WP and removing most of the WP pieces. We recommend moist gauze, used once or twice, as the best primary means for WP elimination and preventing tissue penetration. As a dressing used for medical evacuation (MEDEVAC), or as a second step after complete removal of visible WP, innovative hydrocolloid or hydrogel dressings should be used.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The gauze dressing with a stain of solidified WP after usage of moist gauze to extinguish WP on a military uniform. Extinguishing burning on fresh bacon (pol. “BOCZEK”) covered with field uniform (pol.“MUNDUR”) with moist gauze, description in text.
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f1-medscimonit-21-2361: The gauze dressing with a stain of solidified WP after usage of moist gauze to extinguish WP on a military uniform. Extinguishing burning on fresh bacon (pol. “BOCZEK”) covered with field uniform (pol.“MUNDUR”) with moist gauze, description in text.

Mentions: Every examined dressing type was found to be effective in extinguishing burning phosphorus, provided that the entire area of the burning substance was covered. However, the tactical NATO dressing (WJ10) has fine holes through which the phosphorus could escape and burn. NATO tactical dressing contains an oily emulsion. The substance was still present on the bacon even after 24 h. The oily emulsion penetrated the uniform and enabled WP to burn under the fabric. The dressing did not absorb the WP mass, and when removed, spontaneous re-ignition was immediate. Moist gauze is very efficient in extinguishing burning phosphorus. It also removes and absorbs major parts of the WP mass, preventing deep burns. Figure 1 shows a spot of WP on the moist gauze 1 hour after application of the moist gauze dressing on burning WP on the warm bacon covered by a military uniform. No penetration of liquid WP across the fabric was observed. After gauze removal, most of the WP was retained on the dressing. Liquid colloids were troublesome in usage, and covering the entire area of the phosphorus proved to be difficult. Solid colloids did not prevent re-ignition and when removed, intensive flame was immediately observed.


Experimental Comparison of Efficiency of First Aid Dressings in Burning White Phosphorus on Bacon Model.

Witkowski W, Surowiecka-Pastewka A, Biesaga M, Gierczak T - Med. Sci. Monit. (2015)

The gauze dressing with a stain of solidified WP after usage of moist gauze to extinguish WP on a military uniform. Extinguishing burning on fresh bacon (pol. “BOCZEK”) covered with field uniform (pol.“MUNDUR”) with moist gauze, description in text.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4538885&req=5

f1-medscimonit-21-2361: The gauze dressing with a stain of solidified WP after usage of moist gauze to extinguish WP on a military uniform. Extinguishing burning on fresh bacon (pol. “BOCZEK”) covered with field uniform (pol.“MUNDUR”) with moist gauze, description in text.
Mentions: Every examined dressing type was found to be effective in extinguishing burning phosphorus, provided that the entire area of the burning substance was covered. However, the tactical NATO dressing (WJ10) has fine holes through which the phosphorus could escape and burn. NATO tactical dressing contains an oily emulsion. The substance was still present on the bacon even after 24 h. The oily emulsion penetrated the uniform and enabled WP to burn under the fabric. The dressing did not absorb the WP mass, and when removed, spontaneous re-ignition was immediate. Moist gauze is very efficient in extinguishing burning phosphorus. It also removes and absorbs major parts of the WP mass, preventing deep burns. Figure 1 shows a spot of WP on the moist gauze 1 hour after application of the moist gauze dressing on burning WP on the warm bacon covered by a military uniform. No penetration of liquid WP across the fabric was observed. After gauze removal, most of the WP was retained on the dressing. Liquid colloids were troublesome in usage, and covering the entire area of the phosphorus proved to be difficult. Solid colloids did not prevent re-ignition and when removed, intensive flame was immediately observed.

Bottom Line: Moist gauze was especially effective in extinguishing WP, and also removed and absorbed the majority of the WP mass, preventing deeper penetration of WP particles.A stream of water was dangerous, as it splashed and transferred pieces of WP around.We recommend moist gauze, used once or twice, as the best primary means for WP elimination and preventing tissue penetration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Burns Unit, Military Institute of Medicine, Warsaw, Poland.

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this study was to determine effectiveness of first aid dressings in extinguishing burning white phosphorous (WP), eliminating WP pieces from the surface, inhibiting re-ignition on the model (fresh bacon covered with military uniform), and preventing from late re-ignition caused by persistent WP pieces.

Material and methods: Burning WP was extinguished with several dressings: tactical Military Dressing (WJ10), wet gauze, 2 hydrocolloids, and 3 prototypes of hydrocolloids developed by the authors.

Results: All examined dressings were effective in extinguishing WP provided that the entire area of the burning substance was completely covered. Moist gauze was especially effective in extinguishing WP, and also removed and absorbed the majority of the WP mass, preventing deeper penetration of WP particles. The immediate re-ignition was observed when all the remaining examined dressings were removed from the bacon. A stream of water was dangerous, as it splashed and transferred pieces of WP around.

Conclusions: Moist gauze placed on burning WP for approximately 3 min was most effective in extinguishing WP and removing most of the WP pieces. We recommend moist gauze, used once or twice, as the best primary means for WP elimination and preventing tissue penetration. As a dressing used for medical evacuation (MEDEVAC), or as a second step after complete removal of visible WP, innovative hydrocolloid or hydrogel dressings should be used.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus