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Reduced Symptoms of Inattention after Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation in Boys with and without Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

Bos DJ, Oranje B, Veerhoek ES, Van Diepen RM, Weusten JM, Demmelmair H, Koletzko B, de Sain-van der Velden MG, Eilander A, Hoeksma M, Durston S - Neuropsychopharmacology (2015)

Bottom Line: Nonpharmacological treatments include dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids, although their effectiveness remains to be shown conclusively.Phospholipid DHA level at follow-up was higher for children receiving EPA/DHA supplements than placebo.This effect does not appear to be mediated by cognitive control systems in the brain, as no effect of supplementation was found here.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: NICHE Lab, Department of Psychiatry, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common child psychiatric disorders, and is often treated with stimulant medication. Nonpharmacological treatments include dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids, although their effectiveness remains to be shown conclusively. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on ADHD symptoms and cognitive control in young boys with and without ADHD. A total of 40 boys with ADHD, aged 8-14 years, and 39 matched, typically developing controls participated in a 16-week double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Participants consumed 10 g of margarine daily, enriched with either 650 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) each or placebo. Baseline and follow-up assessments addressed ADHD symptoms, fMRI of cognitive control, urine homovanillic acid, and cheek cell phospholipid sampling. EPA/DHA supplementation improved parent-rated attention in both children with ADHD and typically developing children. Phospholipid DHA level at follow-up was higher for children receiving EPA/DHA supplements than placebo. There was no effect of EPA/DHA supplementation on cognitive control or on fMRI measures of brain activity. This study shows that dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids reduces symptoms of ADHD, both for individuals with ADHD and typically developing children. This effect does not appear to be mediated by cognitive control systems in the brain, as no effect of supplementation was found here. Nonetheless, this study offers support that omega-3 supplementation may be an effective augmentation for pharmacological treatments of ADHD (NCT01554462: The Effects of EPA/DHA Supplementation on Cognitive Control in Children with ADHD; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01554462).

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Trial design. Schematic overview of the design of this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial, including all measures that were collected and the number of participants that were included at baseline. After 1, 2, and 3 months, interim visits took place during which compliance and behavior were measured. ADHD, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder; CBCL, Child Behavior Checklist; DLCQ, Diet and Lifestyle Change Questionnaire; EFAQ, Essential Fatty Acids Questionnaire; SWAN, Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD symptoms and Normal behavior scale; RG, reference group of typically developing children.
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fig1: Trial design. Schematic overview of the design of this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial, including all measures that were collected and the number of participants that were included at baseline. After 1, 2, and 3 months, interim visits took place during which compliance and behavior were measured. ADHD, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder; CBCL, Child Behavior Checklist; DLCQ, Diet and Lifestyle Change Questionnaire; EFAQ, Essential Fatty Acids Questionnaire; SWAN, Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD symptoms and Normal behavior scale; RG, reference group of typically developing children.

Mentions: The 16-week intervention followed a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled design, where investigators, parents, and participants were all blind to the treatment conditions (Figure 1). The 2 × 2 factorial design included four groups: children with ADHD receiving either placebo or omega-3 fortified margarine (ADHDPlacebo and ADHDActive, respectively) and children from the reference group receiving the same treatment (RGPlacebo and RGActive). All participants were randomly assigned to one of the treatment conditions by a member of the Unilever Center for Nutritional Intervention Trials.


Reduced Symptoms of Inattention after Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation in Boys with and without Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

Bos DJ, Oranje B, Veerhoek ES, Van Diepen RM, Weusten JM, Demmelmair H, Koletzko B, de Sain-van der Velden MG, Eilander A, Hoeksma M, Durston S - Neuropsychopharmacology (2015)

Trial design. Schematic overview of the design of this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial, including all measures that were collected and the number of participants that were included at baseline. After 1, 2, and 3 months, interim visits took place during which compliance and behavior were measured. ADHD, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder; CBCL, Child Behavior Checklist; DLCQ, Diet and Lifestyle Change Questionnaire; EFAQ, Essential Fatty Acids Questionnaire; SWAN, Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD symptoms and Normal behavior scale; RG, reference group of typically developing children.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4538345&req=5

fig1: Trial design. Schematic overview of the design of this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial, including all measures that were collected and the number of participants that were included at baseline. After 1, 2, and 3 months, interim visits took place during which compliance and behavior were measured. ADHD, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder; CBCL, Child Behavior Checklist; DLCQ, Diet and Lifestyle Change Questionnaire; EFAQ, Essential Fatty Acids Questionnaire; SWAN, Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD symptoms and Normal behavior scale; RG, reference group of typically developing children.
Mentions: The 16-week intervention followed a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled design, where investigators, parents, and participants were all blind to the treatment conditions (Figure 1). The 2 × 2 factorial design included four groups: children with ADHD receiving either placebo or omega-3 fortified margarine (ADHDPlacebo and ADHDActive, respectively) and children from the reference group receiving the same treatment (RGPlacebo and RGActive). All participants were randomly assigned to one of the treatment conditions by a member of the Unilever Center for Nutritional Intervention Trials.

Bottom Line: Nonpharmacological treatments include dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids, although their effectiveness remains to be shown conclusively.Phospholipid DHA level at follow-up was higher for children receiving EPA/DHA supplements than placebo.This effect does not appear to be mediated by cognitive control systems in the brain, as no effect of supplementation was found here.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: NICHE Lab, Department of Psychiatry, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common child psychiatric disorders, and is often treated with stimulant medication. Nonpharmacological treatments include dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids, although their effectiveness remains to be shown conclusively. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on ADHD symptoms and cognitive control in young boys with and without ADHD. A total of 40 boys with ADHD, aged 8-14 years, and 39 matched, typically developing controls participated in a 16-week double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Participants consumed 10 g of margarine daily, enriched with either 650 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) each or placebo. Baseline and follow-up assessments addressed ADHD symptoms, fMRI of cognitive control, urine homovanillic acid, and cheek cell phospholipid sampling. EPA/DHA supplementation improved parent-rated attention in both children with ADHD and typically developing children. Phospholipid DHA level at follow-up was higher for children receiving EPA/DHA supplements than placebo. There was no effect of EPA/DHA supplementation on cognitive control or on fMRI measures of brain activity. This study shows that dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids reduces symptoms of ADHD, both for individuals with ADHD and typically developing children. This effect does not appear to be mediated by cognitive control systems in the brain, as no effect of supplementation was found here. Nonetheless, this study offers support that omega-3 supplementation may be an effective augmentation for pharmacological treatments of ADHD (NCT01554462: The Effects of EPA/DHA Supplementation on Cognitive Control in Children with ADHD; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01554462).

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus