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A Comparative Study on Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction Methods for Detecting Gene-Gene Interactions with the Survival Phenotype.

Lee S, Kim Y, Kwon MS, Park T - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Bottom Line: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have extensively analyzed single SNP effects on a wide variety of common and complex diseases and found many genetic variants associated with diseases.One of possible approaches to the missing heritability problem is to consider identifying multi-SNP effects or gene-gene interactions.In this study, we propose several extensions of MDR for the survival phenotype and compare the proposed extensions with earlier MDR through comprehensive simulation studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have extensively analyzed single SNP effects on a wide variety of common and complex diseases and found many genetic variants associated with diseases. However, there is still a large portion of the genetic variants left unexplained. This missing heritability problem might be due to the analytical strategy that limits analyses to only single SNPs. One of possible approaches to the missing heritability problem is to consider identifying multi-SNP effects or gene-gene interactions. The multifactor dimensionality reduction method has been widely used to detect gene-gene interactions based on the constructive induction by classifying high-dimensional genotype combinations into one-dimensional variable with two attributes of high risk and low risk for the case-control study. Many modifications of MDR have been proposed and also extended to the survival phenotype. In this study, we propose several extensions of MDR for the survival phenotype and compare the proposed extensions with earlier MDR through comprehensive simulation studies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Comparison of the power of AFT-MDR, dAFT-MDR, and rAFT-MDR for the log-normal distribution when γ = 0.0. *MAF: minor allele frequency; h2: heritability; Cp: censoring proportion.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig1: Comparison of the power of AFT-MDR, dAFT-MDR, and rAFT-MDR for the log-normal distribution when γ = 0.0. *MAF: minor allele frequency; h2: heritability; Cp: censoring proportion.

Mentions: Figures 1 and 2 present the power of AFT-MDR, dAFT-MDR, and rAFT-MDR under the log-normal distribution when γ = 0 and γ = 1, respectively. As shown in Figures 1 and 2, the power of AFT-MDR, dAFT-MDR, and rAFT-MDR has similar trend, which implies that the power of three methods increases as the heritability increases but is lower when the MAF increases from 0.2 to 0.4. As expected, the power of these three methods decreases as the censoring proportion increases from 0.0 to 0.5. In particular, the power of AFT-MDR decreases dramatically when the censoring proportion is lower than 0.3, whereas the power of dAFT-MDR and rAFT-MDR decreases gradually up to the censoring proportion of 0.3 but it decreases faster when the censoring proportion is 0.5. For example, when the MAF is 0.2, heritability is 0.2 and the censoring proportion increases from 0.0 to 0.3 and the power of AFT-MDR decreases from 0.9994 to 0.476 but the power of dAFT-MDR decreases from 0.9904 to 0.8068 and the power of rAFT-MDR decreases from 0.9992 to 0.8072, respectively. Furthermore, when the censoring proportion increases from 0.3 to 0.5, the power of AFT-MDR decreases to 0.0292, whereas the power of dAFT-MDR and rAFT-MDR decreases to 0.3322 and 0.1838, respectively. The degree of decreasing in power is substantially different by improvement in the sense that AFT-MDR hardly detects the significant gene-gene interactions associated with the survival time when the censoring is heavier than 0.5, whereas the improvements of AFT-MDR barely detect the gene-gene interactions. As the heritability increases, the power of AFT-MDR does not increase at all but the power of dAFT-MDR and rAFT-MDR increases up to 0.7026 and 0.5925, respectively. Comparing the power of dAFT-MDR with that of rAFT-MDR, these two improvements seem to behave similarly under the moderate censoring proportion but dAFT-MDR performs better than rAFT-MDR under the heavier censoring as mentioned. This implies that discretizing the standardized residual is more effective than restricting the extreme values as the censoring proportion is heavier than 0.5.


A Comparative Study on Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction Methods for Detecting Gene-Gene Interactions with the Survival Phenotype.

Lee S, Kim Y, Kwon MS, Park T - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Comparison of the power of AFT-MDR, dAFT-MDR, and rAFT-MDR for the log-normal distribution when γ = 0.0. *MAF: minor allele frequency; h2: heritability; Cp: censoring proportion.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4538337&req=5

fig1: Comparison of the power of AFT-MDR, dAFT-MDR, and rAFT-MDR for the log-normal distribution when γ = 0.0. *MAF: minor allele frequency; h2: heritability; Cp: censoring proportion.
Mentions: Figures 1 and 2 present the power of AFT-MDR, dAFT-MDR, and rAFT-MDR under the log-normal distribution when γ = 0 and γ = 1, respectively. As shown in Figures 1 and 2, the power of AFT-MDR, dAFT-MDR, and rAFT-MDR has similar trend, which implies that the power of three methods increases as the heritability increases but is lower when the MAF increases from 0.2 to 0.4. As expected, the power of these three methods decreases as the censoring proportion increases from 0.0 to 0.5. In particular, the power of AFT-MDR decreases dramatically when the censoring proportion is lower than 0.3, whereas the power of dAFT-MDR and rAFT-MDR decreases gradually up to the censoring proportion of 0.3 but it decreases faster when the censoring proportion is 0.5. For example, when the MAF is 0.2, heritability is 0.2 and the censoring proportion increases from 0.0 to 0.3 and the power of AFT-MDR decreases from 0.9994 to 0.476 but the power of dAFT-MDR decreases from 0.9904 to 0.8068 and the power of rAFT-MDR decreases from 0.9992 to 0.8072, respectively. Furthermore, when the censoring proportion increases from 0.3 to 0.5, the power of AFT-MDR decreases to 0.0292, whereas the power of dAFT-MDR and rAFT-MDR decreases to 0.3322 and 0.1838, respectively. The degree of decreasing in power is substantially different by improvement in the sense that AFT-MDR hardly detects the significant gene-gene interactions associated with the survival time when the censoring is heavier than 0.5, whereas the improvements of AFT-MDR barely detect the gene-gene interactions. As the heritability increases, the power of AFT-MDR does not increase at all but the power of dAFT-MDR and rAFT-MDR increases up to 0.7026 and 0.5925, respectively. Comparing the power of dAFT-MDR with that of rAFT-MDR, these two improvements seem to behave similarly under the moderate censoring proportion but dAFT-MDR performs better than rAFT-MDR under the heavier censoring as mentioned. This implies that discretizing the standardized residual is more effective than restricting the extreme values as the censoring proportion is heavier than 0.5.

Bottom Line: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have extensively analyzed single SNP effects on a wide variety of common and complex diseases and found many genetic variants associated with diseases.One of possible approaches to the missing heritability problem is to consider identifying multi-SNP effects or gene-gene interactions.In this study, we propose several extensions of MDR for the survival phenotype and compare the proposed extensions with earlier MDR through comprehensive simulation studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have extensively analyzed single SNP effects on a wide variety of common and complex diseases and found many genetic variants associated with diseases. However, there is still a large portion of the genetic variants left unexplained. This missing heritability problem might be due to the analytical strategy that limits analyses to only single SNPs. One of possible approaches to the missing heritability problem is to consider identifying multi-SNP effects or gene-gene interactions. The multifactor dimensionality reduction method has been widely used to detect gene-gene interactions based on the constructive induction by classifying high-dimensional genotype combinations into one-dimensional variable with two attributes of high risk and low risk for the case-control study. Many modifications of MDR have been proposed and also extended to the survival phenotype. In this study, we propose several extensions of MDR for the survival phenotype and compare the proposed extensions with earlier MDR through comprehensive simulation studies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus