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Effect of 50 Hz Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on the DNA Methylation and DNA Methyltransferases in Mouse Spermatocyte-Derived Cell Line GC-2.

Liu Y, Liu WB, Liu KJ, Ao L, Zhong JL, Cao J, Liu JY - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Bottom Line: However, the biological effects and molecular mechanism are largely unclear.Our study was designed to elucidate the epigenetic effects of 50 Hz ELF-EMF in vitro.The expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3b was decreased at 1 mT, and 50 Hz ELF-EMF can increase the expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3b of GC-2 cells at 3 mT.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China ; Institute of Toxicology, College of Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China.

ABSTRACT
Previous studies have shown that the male reproductive system is one of the most sensitive organs to electromagnetic radiation. However, the biological effects and molecular mechanism are largely unclear. Our study was designed to elucidate the epigenetic effects of 50 Hz ELF-EMF in vitro. Mouse spermatocyte-derived GC-2 cell line was exposed to 50 Hz ELF-EMF (5 min on and 10 min off) at magnetic field intensity of 1 mT, 2 mT, and 3 mT with an intermittent exposure for 72 h. We found that 50 Hz ELF-EMF exposure decreased genome-wide methylation at 1 mT, but global methylation was higher at 3 mT compared with the controls. The expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3b was decreased at 1 mT, and 50 Hz ELF-EMF can increase the expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3b of GC-2 cells at 3 mT. However, 50 Hz ELF-EMF had little influence on the expression of DNMT3a. Then, we established DNA methylation and gene expression profiling and validated some genes with aberrant DNA methylation and expression at different intensity of 50 Hz ELF-EMF. These results suggest that the alterations of genome-wide methylation and DNMTs expression may play an important role in the biological effects of 50 Hz ELF-EMF exposure.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Clustering of differentially expressed genes across 50 Hz ELF-EMF exposure and control group (a) and the differentially regulated genes in GC-2 cells at magnetic field intensity of 1 mT and 3 mT were validated by real-time PCR (b). Gene expression data are presented in a matrix format. Each row represents an individual gene, and each column corresponds to an exposure group, with red indicating upregulation and green indicating downregulation. Black and gray indicate unchanged expression and missing value, respectively.
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fig4: Clustering of differentially expressed genes across 50 Hz ELF-EMF exposure and control group (a) and the differentially regulated genes in GC-2 cells at magnetic field intensity of 1 mT and 3 mT were validated by real-time PCR (b). Gene expression data are presented in a matrix format. Each row represents an individual gene, and each column corresponds to an exposure group, with red indicating upregulation and green indicating downregulation. Black and gray indicate unchanged expression and missing value, respectively.

Mentions: To further explore the effects of 50 Hz ELF-EMF, we used Affymetrix microarrays analysis to establish the gene expression profiles. Clustering of differentially expressed genes across 50 Hz ELF-EMF exposure and control group were shown in Figure 4(a). To investigate the potential mechanism, we choose the fold change that was greater than 1.5 as significantly differentially regulated genes at magnetic field intensity of 1 mT and 3 mT. Through gene expression chip analysis, there were a total of 84 differentially expression genes (including 44 genes upregulation and 40 downregulation) in the 1 mT exposed group compared with the control group. In 3 mT, the altered genes are 324, including 235 increase and 89 decrease. According to the results of Affymetrix Array, we chose several differentially regulated genes which were downregulated or upregulated in GC-2 cells at magnetic field intensity of 1 mT and 3 mT to test and verify using real-time PCR. These results showed that the mRNA expression of selected gene was consistent with the Affymetrix Array in GC-2 cells (Figure 4(b)).


Effect of 50 Hz Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on the DNA Methylation and DNA Methyltransferases in Mouse Spermatocyte-Derived Cell Line GC-2.

Liu Y, Liu WB, Liu KJ, Ao L, Zhong JL, Cao J, Liu JY - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Clustering of differentially expressed genes across 50 Hz ELF-EMF exposure and control group (a) and the differentially regulated genes in GC-2 cells at magnetic field intensity of 1 mT and 3 mT were validated by real-time PCR (b). Gene expression data are presented in a matrix format. Each row represents an individual gene, and each column corresponds to an exposure group, with red indicating upregulation and green indicating downregulation. Black and gray indicate unchanged expression and missing value, respectively.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4538330&req=5

fig4: Clustering of differentially expressed genes across 50 Hz ELF-EMF exposure and control group (a) and the differentially regulated genes in GC-2 cells at magnetic field intensity of 1 mT and 3 mT were validated by real-time PCR (b). Gene expression data are presented in a matrix format. Each row represents an individual gene, and each column corresponds to an exposure group, with red indicating upregulation and green indicating downregulation. Black and gray indicate unchanged expression and missing value, respectively.
Mentions: To further explore the effects of 50 Hz ELF-EMF, we used Affymetrix microarrays analysis to establish the gene expression profiles. Clustering of differentially expressed genes across 50 Hz ELF-EMF exposure and control group were shown in Figure 4(a). To investigate the potential mechanism, we choose the fold change that was greater than 1.5 as significantly differentially regulated genes at magnetic field intensity of 1 mT and 3 mT. Through gene expression chip analysis, there were a total of 84 differentially expression genes (including 44 genes upregulation and 40 downregulation) in the 1 mT exposed group compared with the control group. In 3 mT, the altered genes are 324, including 235 increase and 89 decrease. According to the results of Affymetrix Array, we chose several differentially regulated genes which were downregulated or upregulated in GC-2 cells at magnetic field intensity of 1 mT and 3 mT to test and verify using real-time PCR. These results showed that the mRNA expression of selected gene was consistent with the Affymetrix Array in GC-2 cells (Figure 4(b)).

Bottom Line: However, the biological effects and molecular mechanism are largely unclear.Our study was designed to elucidate the epigenetic effects of 50 Hz ELF-EMF in vitro.The expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3b was decreased at 1 mT, and 50 Hz ELF-EMF can increase the expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3b of GC-2 cells at 3 mT.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China ; Institute of Toxicology, College of Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China.

ABSTRACT
Previous studies have shown that the male reproductive system is one of the most sensitive organs to electromagnetic radiation. However, the biological effects and molecular mechanism are largely unclear. Our study was designed to elucidate the epigenetic effects of 50 Hz ELF-EMF in vitro. Mouse spermatocyte-derived GC-2 cell line was exposed to 50 Hz ELF-EMF (5 min on and 10 min off) at magnetic field intensity of 1 mT, 2 mT, and 3 mT with an intermittent exposure for 72 h. We found that 50 Hz ELF-EMF exposure decreased genome-wide methylation at 1 mT, but global methylation was higher at 3 mT compared with the controls. The expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3b was decreased at 1 mT, and 50 Hz ELF-EMF can increase the expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3b of GC-2 cells at 3 mT. However, 50 Hz ELF-EMF had little influence on the expression of DNMT3a. Then, we established DNA methylation and gene expression profiling and validated some genes with aberrant DNA methylation and expression at different intensity of 50 Hz ELF-EMF. These results suggest that the alterations of genome-wide methylation and DNMTs expression may play an important role in the biological effects of 50 Hz ELF-EMF exposure.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus